Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory

2 Fact or Fiction? Memory storage is never automatic; it always takes effort. Although our capacity for storing information is large, we are still limited in the number of permanent memories we can form The hour before sleep, is a good time to commit information to memory When people learn something while intoxicated, they recall it best when they are again intoxicated Confidence is essential to eyewitness accuracy

3 You are what you remember!
What was your earliest memory? Psychology Today Can you name the Seven dwarfs?

4 What is memory process? Get info into the brain (encode)
Retain information (storage) Get information out (retrieval)

5 Types of Memory Procedural memory- memory for how to carry out skilled movement Episodic memory- memory regarding a personal experience Semantic memory- memory involving general knowledge

6 Encoding

7 Shiffrin/Atkinson Model
Visual Sensory Memory (Iconic) Visual images stored 1-2 seconds Auditory Sensory Memory (echoic) Sound images last 3-4 seconds Tactile Sensory Memory (touch) Touch sensations last 1-2 seconds

8 Memory Processing Model

9 Herman Ebbinghaus Maintenance Rehearsal
Elaborate rehearsal (rehearsal & meaning) Schema & Constructive memory Chunking Meaning Mnemonics Imagery


11 Meaning

12 Storage

13 Short-term Memory= how does it work?
Brief (20 seconds) Easily interrupted Limited in size Short-term memory recall is approximately 7 digits Magic Number 7 + or - 2

14 Flashbulb memory= also called Episodic memory
Vivid Long-Lasting Emotional

15 Other Memory Types.. Semantic Memory= Memory for information
Procedural memory= Memory for actions (bike riding, swimming, tying your shoes) These are our most enduring types of memory.

16 Same or similar emotional state
Encoding specificity principle= we retrieve best when we can re-create the original conditions Content dependent memory State dependent memory Same or similar emotional state Same physical space

17 Forgetting as Encoding Failure
Module 23: Forgetting and Memory Construction

18 Encoding Failures People fail to encode information because:
It is unimportant to them It is not necessary to know the information A decrease in the brain’s ability to encode

19 Retrieval…what if the memory is “in there” but you can’t get it out?
Tip of the tongue phenomenon Recognize with “cues” Implicit memory= “remembering” something when we don’t realize that we do. (may need to be primed) Explicit memory=

20 Serial Position

21 Module 23: Forgetting and Memory Construction

22 Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
German philosopher who pioneering memory studies. Developed the forgetting curve, also called the “retention curve” or “Ebbinghaus curve”

23 The Forgetting Curve (Adapted from Ebbinghaus, 1885)

24 Forgetting as Retrieval Failure: Interference
Module 23: Forgetting and Memory Construction

25 Interference A retrieval problem when one memory gets in the way of remembering another Two types of interference: Proactive interference Retroactive interference

26 Proactive Interference
When an older memory disrupts the recall of a newer memory.

27 Proactive Interference

28 Retroactive Interference
When a more recent memory disrupts the recall of an older memory.

29 Retroactive Interference

30 Forgetting (The Freudian view)

31 Much is known And much is still being discovered
Memory & the Brain Much is known And much is still being discovered

32 Long-Term Potentiation
Neural explanation Aplysia (sea snail) When groups of neurons fire together repeatedly, the synaptic connections form communications

33 Memory Jigsaw Analogy Memories, rather than being like a video tape, are formed as bits and pieces. People may retrieve only some of the pieces of the memory

34 Physical Structures of memory
The Hippocampus- new memories The Cerebellum-procedural memories here The Prefrontal cortex- “habit” learning The Amygdala- emotional learning

35 Elizabeth Loftus ( ) Psychologist at University of California, Irvine, whose research established the constructed nature of memory. Has found that subjects’ memories vary based on the wording of questions Memories are malleable Demonstrated the misinformation effect

36 Misinformation Effect
Incorporating misleading information into a memory of an event. Affects eyewitness testimony

37 Misinformation Effect

38 Memory Construction: Recovered Memories
Module 23: Forgetting and Memory Construction

39 Accuracy of Memories

Download ppt "Memory."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google