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Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology

2 Models of Approach O One-Dimensional Models O Single cause, operating in isolation O Ignores critical information O Multidimensional Models O Systemic O Several independent inputs that become interdependent O Causes cannot be considered out of context

3 Components of Multidimensional Models O Biological Factors O Behavioral Factors O Cognitive Factors O Emotional Influences O Social Factors O Developmental Factors O All of these interact interdependently

4 Biology: The Influence of Genes  What are genes? ◦ Functional sections of DNA located on chromosomes  How do they influence our risk for psychopathology? ◦ Increase or decrease risk for psychopathology  Polygenetic influences  Multiple genes interact ◦ Often interact with environmental factors  Example: nutrition and height

5 The Study of Genes and Behavior  Quantitative genetics accounts for the effects of several genes on a phenotype ◦ Estimates “heritability,” but does not involve measuring genes  Relies on twin-studies, mostly  Molecular genetics accounts for the influence of specific genes ◦ Involves measuring specific genes and determining their specific influence  DNA collected via saliva, blood, or cheek cells

6 How Else Do Genes Contribute to Psychopathology? Diathesis-Stress model: ◦ Diathesis:  Inherited tendency to express traits/behaviors  Usually genetic ◦ Stress:  Life events or contextual variables  Environmental ◦ Effects of stress (environment) on psychopathology depend on one’s diathesis (genes)  Genes can make a person more or less susceptible to negative effects of environment

7 The Diathesis-Stress Model: Illustration

8 How Else Do Genes Contribute to Psychopathology? Epigenetics: Environments affect gene expression O Activation of dormant genes O 9Jgl6g 9Jgl6g

9 Biology: Neuroscience and Psychopathology O The Field of Neuroscience O The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior O Human Nervous System (2 Branches) O CNS O Brain and spinal cord O PNS O Somatic and autonomic branches

10 Overview: Neuroscience and Brain Structure O Two main parts: O Brain stem – basic functions O Forebrain –higher cognition

11 Divisions of the Brain Stem O Hindbrain O Medulla – Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration O Pons – Regulates sleep stages O Cerebellum –physical coordination O Midbrain O Coordinates movement with sensory input O Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS)

12 Brain Stem and Forebrain Connections O Thalamus and hypothalamus O Relays between brain stem and forebrain O Behavioral and emotional regulation O Limbic system O Emotions, basic drives, impulse control O Strong links with psychopathology O Basal ganglia O Motor activity O MgodOG0ACw MgodOG0ACw

13 Divisions of the Forebrain O Forebrain (Cerebral Cortex) O Most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing O Two specialized hemispheres O Left – verbal, math, logic O Right – perceptual

14 Neuroscience and the Brain Structure O Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex O Frontal O Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory O Temporal O Sight and sound recognition, long-term memory storage O Parietal O Touch recognition O Occipital O Integrates visual input

15 Major Structures of the Brain

16 Neuroscience: The Peripheral Nervous System O PNS - Somatic O Voluntary muscles and movement O PNS - Autonomic O Sympathetic (activating) O E.g., increase heart rate O Parasympathetic (normalizing) O E.g., decrease heart rate O Both divisions regulate: O Cardiovascular system/body temperature O Endocrine system/digestion


18 Neuroscience: The Peripheral Nervous System O The Endocrine System O Hormones O The Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenalcortical Axis (HPA axis) O Integration of endocrine and nervous system O Involved in stress response e.g., fight or flight

19 Neurons  The Neuron (aka nerve cells)- basic building block of nervous system ◦ Soma ◦ Dendrites ◦ Axon ◦ Axon terminals ◦ Synaptic cleft  Function: Electrical  Communication: Chemical ◦ Neurotransmitters

20 Neurotransmitters

21 O Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) GABA – inhibitory O Implicated in anxiety and its treatment O Benzodiazepines are tranquilizers that act as GABA agonists. O Agonist vs. antagonist. O pfG6yHAQ5U pfG6yHAQ5U O Norepinephrine O Respiration, reactions, alarm response O Implicated in panic Neurotransmitters

22 O Serotonin O Regulates behavior, moods, thought processes O Implicated in depression and many other forms of psychopathology O Dopamine O Implicated in schizophrenia O Also associated with reward processing and impulsivity Neurotransmitters

23 Medication Effects on Serotonin

24 Neuroscience and Psychopathology O Psychosocial influences on the brain O Psychotherapy and functional normalization in OCD

25 Cognitive Approaches O cognitive approaches: identification and modification of maladaptive thoughts Aaron Beck (cognitive therapy) Albert Ellis (rational emotive behavior therapy) Situation Emotions Thoughts Behavior

26 O Learned helplessness (Seligman) O Implicated in depression and anxiety O Relates to one’s belief that they are not in control Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences

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