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Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology.

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1 Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology

2 One-Dimensional vs. Multidimensional Models  One-Dimensional Models (single Paradigm)  A conceptual approach  Could mean an emphasis on a specific cause of abnormal behavior  Problems occur when information from other areas is ignored  Multidimensional Models (draws from multiple paradigms)  Interdisciplinary, eclectic, and integrative  “System” of influences that cause and maintain suffering  Draws upon information from several sources  View abnormal behavior as multiply determined

3 Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behavior  Biological Factors (genetics, physiology, neurobiology)  Learning Factors (conditioning, modeling)  Emotional Factors  Cognitive Factors  Social Factors  Cultural Factors

4 Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behavior (cont.) Figure 2.1 Judy’s case one-dimensional or multidimensional models

5 Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology  Biological Paradigm  Phenotype vs. genotype

6 The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Effects  Gene-Environment Interactions  The Diathesis-Stress Model  Predisposition  Stress

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8 Ways to study Behavioral Genetics  Family Method  Index cases  Twin Studies  DZ  MZ  Adoptees Method

9 Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology  The Field of Neuroscience  The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior  The Central Nervous System (CNS)  Brain and spinal cord  The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Somatic and autonomic branches

10 Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology (cont.) Figure 2.4 Divisions of the nervous system (from Goldstein, 1994)

11 Neuroscience and the Central Nervous System  The Neuron  Soma – Cell body  Dendrites – Branches that receive messages from other neurons  Axon – Trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons  Axon terminals – Buds at end of axon from which chemical messages are sent  Synapses – Small gaps that separate neurons  Neurons Function Electrically, but Communicate Chemically  Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers

12 Neuroscience and the Central Nervous System (cont.) Figure 2.5 Transmission of information from one neuron to another

13 Neuroscience: Functions of Main Types of Neurotransmitters  Functions of Neurotransmitters  Agonists  Antagonists

14 Neuroscience: Functions of Main Types of Neurotransmitters  Main Types and Functions of Neurotransmitters  Serotonin (SSRIs & St. John’s wort) -  Regulates behaviors, moods, thoughts  Tx Depression by ^ serotonin  Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and benzodiazepines  Reduces postsynaptic activity, which inhibits behavior and emotions  Tx Anxiety by ^ GABA  Norepinephrine and beta blockers  Tx block receptors of norepinephrine reduces Arousal & anxiety  Dopamine  Tx Schizophrenia by blocking receptors (lowers Dop)

15 Neuroscience: Functions of Main Types of Neurotransmitters (cont.) Figure 2.11 Manipulating serotonin in the brain

16 Neuroscience and the Divisions of the Brain  Hindbrain  Medulla – Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration  Pons – Regulates sleep stages  Cerebellum – Involved in physical coordination  Midbrain  Coordinates movement with sensory input  Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS)

17 Neuroscience and the Brain Structure  Limbic System  Thalamus – Receives and integrates sensory information  Hypothalamus – Controls eating, drinking, aggression, sexual activity  Regulates emotions and expressions

18 Neuroscience and the Divisions of the Brain Forebrain (Cerebral Cortex)  Location of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing  Two specialized hemispheres (left and right) joined by the corpus callosum

19 Neuroscience and the Brain Structure  Lobes of Cerebral Cortex  Frontal – Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory  Parietal – Touch recognition  Occipital – Integrates visual input  Temporal – Recognition of sounds and long-term memory storage

20 Neuroscience: Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine Systems  Somatic Branch of PNS  Controls voluntary muscles and movement  Autonomic Branch of the PNS  Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS  Regulates cardiovascular system & body temperature  Also regulates the endocrine system and aids in digestion  The Endocrine System  Hormones

21 Neuroscience: Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine Systems (cont.) Figure 2.9 Location of some of the major endocrine glands

22 EVALUATING THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM  Biological researchers have made great progress in elucidating brain ‑ behavior relationships.  Biologically based research on both causes and treatment of psychopathology is proceeding at a rapid rate, as we will see when we discuss specific psychopathologies  Caution against reductionism  The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

23 The Contributions of Behavioral and Cognitive Science  Conditioning and Cognitive Processes  Respondent and operant learning  Learned helplessness  Modeling and vicarious learning  Prepared learning  Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  Beck  Cognitive distortions  Ellis  Irrational beliefs

24 EVALUATING THE COGNITIVE PARADIGM  Interventions based on cognitive theories have received more empirical research support than any other intervention.  Cognitive explanations of psychopathology tend to focus more on current determinants of a disorder and less on its cause.

25 The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology  The Nature of Emotion  To motivate us  Action tendency different from affect and mood  Intimately tied with several forms of psychopathology  Components of Emotion  Behavior, physiology, and cognition  Example of fear  Harmful Side of Emotional Dysregulation

26 The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology (cont.) Figure 2.15 Emotion has three important and overlapping components: behavior, cognition, and physiology

27 Cultural and Social Factors in Psychopathology  Cultural Factors  Influence the form and expression of normal and abnormal behavior  Gender Effects  Exerts a strong and puzzling effect on psychopathology  Social Relationships  Frequency and quality related to mortality, disease, and psychopathology  Stigma

28 Life-Span and Developmental Influences Over Psychopathology  Life-Span Developmental Perspective  Addresses developmental changes  Such changes influence and constrain what is normal and abnormal  The Principle of Equifinality  Several paths to a given outcome  Paths may operate differentially at different developmental stages

29 Summary of the Multidimensional Perspective of Psychopathology  Multiple Causation  Is the rule, not the exception in explaining normal and abnormal behavior  Take a Broad, Comprehensive, Systemic Perspective  Addressing biological, psychological, social, cultural, and developmental factors  Useful in Understanding the Causes of Psychopathology and its Alleviation


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