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Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology

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1 Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology

2 One-Dimensional vs. Multidimensional Models
One-Dimensional Models (single Paradigm) A conceptual approach Could mean an emphasis on a specific cause of abnormal behavior Problems occur when information from other areas is ignored Multidimensional Models (draws from multiple paradigms) Interdisciplinary, eclectic, and integrative “System” of influences that cause and maintain suffering Draws upon information from several sources View abnormal behavior as multiply determined

3 Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behavior
Biological Factors (genetics, physiology, neurobiology) Learning Factors (conditioning, modeling) Emotional Factors Cognitive Factors Social Factors Cultural Factors

4 Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behavior (cont.)
Figure 2.1 Judy’s case one-dimensional or multidimensional models

5 Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology
Biological Paradigm Phenotype vs. genotype

6 The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Effects
Gene-Environment Interactions The Diathesis-Stress Model Predisposition Stress


8 Ways to study Behavioral Genetics
Family Method Index cases Twin Studies DZ MZ Adoptees Method

9 Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology
The Field of Neuroscience The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior The Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic and autonomic branches

10 Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology (cont.)
Figure 2.4 Divisions of the nervous system (from Goldstein, 1994)

11 Neuroscience and the Central Nervous System
The Neuron Soma – Cell body Dendrites – Branches that receive messages from other neurons Axon – Trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons Axon terminals – Buds at end of axon from which chemical messages are sent Synapses – Small gaps that separate neurons Neurons Function Electrically, but Communicate Chemically Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers

12 Neuroscience and the Central Nervous System (cont.)
Figure 2.5 Transmission of information from one neuron to another

13 Neuroscience: Functions of Main Types of Neurotransmitters
Functions of Neurotransmitters Agonists Antagonists

14 Neuroscience: Functions of Main Types of Neurotransmitters
Main Types and Functions of Neurotransmitters Serotonin (SSRIs & St. John’s wort) - Regulates behaviors, moods, thoughts Tx Depression by ^ serotonin Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and benzodiazepines Reduces postsynaptic activity, which inhibits behavior and emotions Tx Anxiety by ^ GABA Norepinephrine and beta blockers Tx block receptors of norepinephrine reduces Arousal & anxiety Dopamine Tx Schizophrenia by blocking receptors (lowers Dop)

15 Neuroscience: Functions of Main Types of Neurotransmitters (cont.)
Figure 2.11 Manipulating serotonin in the brain

16 Neuroscience and the Divisions of the Brain
Hindbrain Medulla – Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration Pons – Regulates sleep stages Cerebellum – Involved in physical coordination Midbrain Coordinates movement with sensory input Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS)

17 Neuroscience and the Brain Structure
Limbic System Thalamus – Receives and integrates sensory information Hypothalamus – Controls eating, drinking, aggression, sexual activity Regulates emotions and expressions

18 Neuroscience and the Divisions of the Brain
Forebrain (Cerebral Cortex) Location of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing Two specialized hemispheres (left and right) joined by the corpus callosum

19 Neuroscience and the Brain Structure
Lobes of Cerebral Cortex Frontal – Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory Parietal – Touch recognition Occipital – Integrates visual input Temporal – Recognition of sounds and long-term memory storage

20 Neuroscience: Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine Systems
Somatic Branch of PNS Controls voluntary muscles and movement Autonomic Branch of the PNS Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS Regulates cardiovascular system & body temperature Also regulates the endocrine system and aids in digestion The Endocrine System Hormones

21 Neuroscience: Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine Systems (cont.)
Figure 2.9 Location of some of the major endocrine glands

Biological researchers have made great progress in elucidating brain‑behavior relationships. Biologically based research on both causes and treatment of psychopathology is proceeding at a rapid rate, as we will see when we discuss specific psychopathologies Caution against reductionism The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

23 The Contributions of Behavioral and Cognitive Science
Conditioning and Cognitive Processes Respondent and operant learning Learned helplessness Modeling and vicarious learning Prepared learning Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Beck Cognitive distortions Ellis Irrational beliefs

Interventions based on cognitive theories have received more empirical research support than any other intervention. Cognitive explanations of psychopathology tend to focus more on current determinants of a disorder and less on its cause.

25 The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology
The Nature of Emotion To motivate us Action tendency different from affect and mood Intimately tied with several forms of psychopathology Components of Emotion Behavior, physiology, and cognition Example of fear Harmful Side of Emotional Dysregulation

26 The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology (cont.)
Figure 2.15 Emotion has three important and overlapping components: behavior, cognition, and physiology

27 Cultural and Social Factors in Psychopathology
Cultural Factors Influence the form and expression of normal and abnormal behavior Gender Effects Exerts a strong and puzzling effect on psychopathology Social Relationships Frequency and quality related to mortality, disease, and psychopathology Stigma

28 Life-Span and Developmental Influences Over Psychopathology
Life-Span Developmental Perspective Addresses developmental changes Such changes influence and constrain what is normal and abnormal The Principle of Equifinality Several paths to a given outcome Paths may operate differentially at different developmental stages

29 Summary of the Multidimensional Perspective of Psychopathology
Multiple Causation Is the rule, not the exception in explaining normal and abnormal behavior Take a Broad, Comprehensive, Systemic Perspective Addressing biological, psychological, social, cultural, and developmental factors Useful in Understanding the Causes of Psychopathology and its Alleviation

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