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Lecture Overview Neural Bases of Behavior Nervous System OrganizationA Tour Through the Brain Our Genetic Inheritance ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of PsychologyNeuroscience: interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral & mental processes ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of Psychology (Continued)Our nervous system consists of neurons (cells responsible for receiving & transmitting electrochemical information). ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural CommunicationWithin a neuron, communication results from an action potential (a neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron). Action potential animation: ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters (chemicals released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons). ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons. These multiple messages then determine if an action potential occurs or not. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)Note how the axon terminals of sending neurons almost completely cover the cell body of the receiving neuron. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: AssessmentWhat happens to excess neurotransmitters or to those that do not “fit” into the adjacent receptor sites? (The answer appears on the next slide.) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: AssessmentThe sending neuron normally reabsorbs the excess (called “reuptake) or they are broken down by special enzymes. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday LifeKey neurotransmitters: Serotonin Acetylcholine (ACh) Dopamine (DA) Norepinephrine (NE) Epinephrine (adrenaline) GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) Endorphins ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Neural Bases of Psychology: How Hormones Affect UsEndocrine System: collection of glands that manufacture & secrete hormones into the bloodstream ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Why Do We Need Two Communication Systems—Neurotransmitters + Hormones?©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Nervous System OrganizationCentral Nervous System (CNS): brain & spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): all nerves & neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body PNS is subdivided into the somatic & autonomic nervous systems Autonomic nervous system subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Central Nervous System: Important TermsNeuroplasticity: brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize & change its structure & function throughout the life span Neurogenesis: process by which new neurons are generated Stem Cells: immature (uncommitted) cells with the potential to develop into almost any type of cell ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)Brain Spinal Cord (transmits information into & out of the brain ) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary, automatic behaviors called reflexes. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Nervous System Organization: Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)PNS connects CNS to the rest of the body & is subdivided into: Somatic Nervous System (SNS): connects to sensory receptors & controls skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls involuntary bodily functions & is further subdivided into: Sympathetic Nervous System (arouses) Parasympathetic Nervous System (calms) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Nervous System OrganizationAnatomy & functions of the sympathetic (arouses) & parasympathetic (calms) nervous systems ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: AssessmentYou touch a hot stove & then immediately & reflexively pull away. This action was controlled by _____. After being startled by the sight & sound of a fierce dog rushing toward you, it is most likely that your _____ is dominant. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through the Brain©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: HindbrainThree key structures & functions of the hindbrain: Medulla: life survival functions Pons: respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, & dreaming Cerebellum: coordination of fine muscular movement, balance, & some aspects of perception & cognition ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)Midbrain: collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain; coordinates movement patterns, sleep, & arousal Reticular Formation: (archaic term for cells in the hindbrain, midbrain, & brainstem); screens incoming information & controls arousal ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)Forebrain: collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, & limbic system Thalamus: relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex Hypothalamus: responsible for drives, hormones, & regulating the body’s internal environment ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Structures of the Forebrain©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)Limbic System: interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, & memory ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: Cerebral CortexCerebral Cortex: surface layer on the left & right cerebral hemispheres; regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, & higher mental processes ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Continued.)©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral CortexFrontal Lobes: receive & coordinate messages from other lobes; responsible for motor control, speech production, & higher functions, such as thinking, personality, emotion, & memory ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Critical ThinkingPhineas Gage’s mining accident sent a 13-pound tamping iron through his frontal lobes. How did this affect his short- & long-term behavior & mental processes? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Cerebral Cortex Parietal Lobes: located at the top of the brain direct behind the frontal lobes; responsible for interpreting bodily sensations Temporal Lobes: located on each side of the brain above the ears; responsible for audition, language comprehension, memory, & some emotional control ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Continued)Occipital Lobes: located at the back of the brain; responsible for vision & visual perception ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: Primary Motor Cortex & Somatosensory Cortex©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Critical ThinkingWhy are the hands & face on this drawing so large? What do they represent? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: LateralizationThe left & right hemispheres of your brain each specialize in particular (but often overlapping) operations. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Nature or Nurture? Sex differences in lateralization. Note how activation (red color) is confined to only one hemisphere in the male brain on the left, & how it occurs on both hemispheres in the female brain on the right. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain ResearchSevering the corpus callosum provides information on the role & functions of the left & right hemispheres. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research (Continued)©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Amber Gilewski Tompkins Cortland Community College
The Nervous System Neurons, Nerves, the Brain and Neurotransmitters.
The part of the neuron responsible for carrying a message
And Brain Organization
All or none = the least amount of energy needed to start the motion Action Potential = the movement of neural activity Refractory Period = the.
Body and behavior Chapter 6. Standards Standard II: Biopsychological Biological basis of behavior IIA-1.1 Structure and function on neuron IIA- 2.1 Organization.
Neural Communication Nervous System Lower Brain System.
The decision and communication center
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Note to the Instructor: The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and.
Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain
Neuroscience & Biological Foundations
Chapter 2 Neuroscience & Behavior Modified from: James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)
Chapter 2 Neural Communication & The Brain Psychology 101 Sara J. Buhl.
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman
Chapter 2 BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
CHAPTERS 6, 8, 12, 15 UNIT 3 REVIEW. THE BRAIN AND BODY Chapter 6.
Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc PsychSmart INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY.
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman/Vernoy/Vernoy: Psychology in Action 5e Psychology in Action, Fifth Edition by Karen Huffman, Mark Vernoy, and Judith.
The Nervous System.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2.
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