Presentation on theme: "Exploring a topic in depth... From Reading to Writing The drama Antigone was written and performed 2,500 years ago in a society that was very different."— Presentation transcript:
Exploring a topic in depth... From Reading to Writing The drama Antigone was written and performed 2,500 years ago in a society that was very different from ours. You probably have many questions about it. How much influence did the gods have in the daily lives of the people in ancient Greece? Who was the audience for these plays? How were the plays staged?
Exploring a topic in depth... A research report can help you find the answers to questions like these. Research can not only help you understand literature, but it can also help you investigate a science problem, understand a historical event, or choose a career.
B a s i c s i n a B o x RUBRIC Standards for Writing A successful research project should include a strong introduction with a clear thesis statement use evidence from primary and secondary sources to develop and support ideas credit sources of information follow a logical pattern of organization, using transitions between ideas synthesize ideas in a strong conclusion provide a correctly formatted Works Cited list at the end of the paper Research Report at a Glance
Writing Your Research Report 1 Prewriting and Exploring n Begin by brainstorming topics that interest you. n Put your unique spin on the subject by creating a cluster diagram with the topic in the center. What related ideas come up? n Try narrowing some of the related topics even further.
Planning Your Research Report 1. Evaluate your topic. Is your topic broad enough so you can find enough information? Is it narrow enough so you can cover it adequately? You might do preliminary research to answer these questions. Making a cluster diagram can help you either broaden or narrow your focus. 2. Establish a goal. What do you want to accomplish in your report? Do you want to analyze the topic? inform your readers?
Planning Your Research Report 3. Identify your audience. Who will read your report? What does your audience already know about the topic? What do they need to know? 4. Consider your purpose. How can you express your purpose in a single sentence? That statement can help you stay on target as you do research. Later on, you can revise this to become your thesis statement.
Writing Your Research Report 2 Researching Use the following ideas to gather information: n Make a list of questions you have about your topic based on the purpose of your report and what your audience needs to know. n Begin your search in the library.
Writing Your Research Report 2 Researching n Look for primary sources, which give eyewitness accounts of events. Primary sources include letters, journals, historical documents, and original works of fiction. n Also look for secondary sources, which present information compiled from or based on other sources. Secondary sources include works of criticism and commentary and most newspaper and magazine articles.
Writing Your Research Report 2 Researching Create Source Cards Make a source card for each source you use. Record complete publishing information on index cards. Number the cards so that you can easily refer to them as you take notes and prepare your Works Cited page. For library books, list the call number as well.
Writing Your Research Report 2 Researching Take Notes Record the information you gather on index cards. Write one idea on each card so you can easily reorder your cards as you organize your report. Label each card with the number of the source card and the page number in the source.
Writing Your Research Report 2 Researching Paraphrase Unless you are quoting material directly, paraphrase what you read: that is, write it in your own words. That way, you will be less likely to accidentally plagiarize, or use someone else’s material without permission, and you can reduce the information to fewer words.
Writing Your Research Report 2 Researching Quotation If you quote a source, use quotation marks and double-check the accuracy of your quotation. Quote material that is particularly well stated or that helps you emphasize a point.
Writing Your Research Report 2 Researching Organize Your Material One way to begin organizing your research information is to group your note cards according to key ideas. This will help you see how the information is related. Try several arrangements of ideas, such as chronological and cause-and-effect order to see which works the best.
Writing Your Research Report 2 Researching Organize Your Material Create an outline, using the key ideas as the main headings. Label these with Roman numerals. Subheadings, which summarize smaller groupings of note cards in each group, are labeled with capital letters.
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting As you begin writing, keep in mind that your goal in drafting is to get your ideas down on paper in a reasonably organized manner. Use your outline as a guide and write from your note cards. At some point, write a thesis statement that expresses the main idea of your report. You will support your thesis with the information gathered in your research.
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Choose Writing Strategies You may want to use some of these strategies for developing your ideas. n Narration. Presenting material as a narrative can add interest and drama to your report. n Definition. Identify and define terms or concepts that your audience may not know.
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Choose Writing Strategies n Description. You might imagine what an eyewitness would see and describe this using sensory details. n Classification. Discuss the characteristics of your topic by comparing it to similar topics or by breaking it into logical parts and examining each one.
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Organize Your Report Think of your report as having three parts: n Introduction. The introduction should include a hook that captures your readers’ interest and should clearly state your thesis.
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Organize Your Report n Body. The body should present the information that supports your thesis. Some information might be organized in chronological order, other information in order of importance, spatial order, or cause- and-effect order, for example.
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Organize Your Report n Conclusion. End your report with a memorable conclusion that summarizes your thesis, draws a conclusion, or points out topics that need further examination.
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Document Your Sources Document each quotation, paraphrase, or summary of information in your report by citing the author and page number of the source in parentheses. Your readers can refer to your Works Cited list for full information.
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Evaluate Your Draft Think about these questions as you review your draft. n How can I rework my report to better achieve my purpose and goals for writing?
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Evaluate Your Draft n Does all of my information support my thesis statement? What information should I add? What information should I delete? n What facts, quotations, and other information do I need to check and document?
Writing Your Research Report 3 Drafting Evaluate Your Draft n How can I better communicate my interest in this topic? n How can I improve the organization of my report?
Writing Your Research Report 4 Revising TARGET SKILL ELABORATING WITH FACTS AND STATISTICS As you revise, look for opportunities to elaborate on your ideas by adding facts and statistics. A fact is a statement that can be proved either by the use of reference materials or firsthand observation. Statistics are facts expressed in numbers.
Writing Your Research Report 5353 Editing and Proofreading TARGET SKILL PARALLELISM When parts of a sentence have parallel functions, the structure of the sentence parts should also be parallel. For example, when connecting two or more similar ideas, use the same part of speech for both.
Writing Your Research Report 6363 Making a Works Cited List When you have finished revising, editing, and proofreading your report, make a Works Cited list and attach it to the end of your paper.