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15 September 20151 Development of Nursing Research.

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Presentation on theme: "15 September 20151 Development of Nursing Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 15 September 20151 Development of Nursing Research

2 15 September 20152 Summary  Nursing research is defined as “the systematic, objective process of analyzing phenomena of importance to nursing”  It includes studies concerning: - nursing practice; -nursing education; - nursing administration, and - nurses themselves

3 15 September 20153 Source of nursing knowledge  Has come from:  1. tradition  2. authority  3. trail and error  4. scientific research

4 15 September 20154  Scientific research uses:  Empirical data (data gathered through the sense);  And is a systematic, orderly, and objective method of seeking information.

5 15 September 20155  Basic research: generate new knowledge  Applied research: uses the knowledge to solve the immediate problems  Most nursing research studies have been applied research  The most important goal for conducting nursing research is the promotion of evidence-based nursing practice.  Other goals for conducting research are to ensure credibility of nursing profession, provide accountability for nursing practice, and document the cost effectiveness of nursing care.

6 15 September 20156  Quantitative research: is concerned with objectivity, tight controls over the research situation, and the ability of to generalize findings.  Qualitative research: is concerned with the subjective meaning of an experience to an individual.  Outcome research:  Focuses on measurable outcomes of interventions with certain patient populations.

7 15 September 20157 Role of nurses in nursing research:  Principle investigator  Members of research team  Identifiers of researchable problems  Evaluators of research findings  Users of research findings  Client advocate during the study  Participant in research  Research utilization of research findings.

8 15 September 20158 Priorities for future nursing research  Research concerned with health promotion and preventive health practices for all age groups.  Health care needs of high risk groups  Life satisfaction of individuals and families  And the development of cost effective health care system.  Replication studies should be a high priority for nursing research.  Replication studies: involve repeating a study with all the essential elements of the original study held intact. Different samples and settings may be used.

9 15 September 20159 Research Foundations of Nursing Research Fifth Edition Chapter 2 Ethical Issues in Nursing Research Rose Marie Nieswiadomy

10 15 September 201510 Learning Objective 1  Discuss some of the unethical studies that have been documented in the literature

11 15 September 201511 Unethical Research Studies  Examples of how prisoners were used  infecting women prisoners with syphilis, having them impregnated by male prisoners, then dissecting the live babies and mothers.  Draining the blood from prisoners’ veins and substituting horse blood.  Exploding gas gangrene bombs next to prisoners tied to stakes.

12 15 September 201512 Learning Objective 2  Trace the development of ethical codes and guidelines

13 15 September 201513 The Nuremberg Code, 1947  After a result of prisoner research, the need for ethical guidelines becomes clear.  Criteria for research identified o Researcher must inform subjects about the study o Research for the good of society o Research based on animal experiments o Researcher must avoid injury to subjects o Researcher must be qualified to do research o Subjects or researcher can stop study if problems occur

14 15 September 201514 Other Ethical Codes  Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948  The Belmont Report – 1979 o Respect for Persons: participants should have autonomy and self-determination o Beneficence: participants should be protected from harm o Justice: participants should receive fair treatment

15 15 September 201515 Learning Objective 3  Appreciate the role of institutional review boards

16 15 September 201516  agencies may have other research committees that review research proposals  Some institutions have nursing researching committees specifically concerned with nursing research in that particular institution.

17 15 September 201517 Research Guidelines for Nurses  Human Rights Guidelines for Nurses in Clinical and Other Research:  These guidelines address the rights of research subjects and nurses involved in research  Subjects must be protected from harm  Their privacy should ensured, and their dignity preserved

18 15 September 201518 Learning Objective 4  Identify the elements of informed consent

19 15 September 201519 Informed Consent  Concerns with subjects’ participation in research in which they have full understanding of the study before the study begins.  Say it In other words: the subjects agree to participate in studies about which they have complete understanding about the study before the study begins.  Protects rights of research subjects  Receives full explanation of the study  Allows time for clarification  Submits permission by signed name

20 15 September 201520 Major Elements of Informed Consent  Researcher is identified and credentials presented  Subject selection process is described  Study purpose is described  Study procedures are discussed  Potential risks are described  Potential benefits are described  Compensation, if any, is discussed  Alternative procedures, if any, are disclosed

21 15 September 201521 Major Elements of Informed Consent  Anonymity or confidentiality is assured  Anonymity: no one can identify the subjects in a study.  Confidentiality: the researcher will protect the subjects’ identities.  Right to refuse or withdraw from the study without penalty is assured  Offer to answer all Questions is made  Means of obtaining study results is presented

22 15 September 201522 Debriefing  Is a meeting with research participants that ensures their understanding of the reasons and the justification for the procedures used in the study.

23 15 September 201523 Research Identification  Research name and qualifications  Sponsor or sponsoring agency  Confusion if nurse caregiver is also researcher

24 15 September 201524 Subject Selection Process  Other names for “subject”  Selection goal—unbiased sample  Subjects told how they are selected  Women, men, ethnic, and cultural groups  NINR and funding opportunities

25 15 September 201525 Study Purpose  Language and reading level  Open and honest with explanation  Enough information for informed consent

26 15 September 201526 Study Procedures  Place  Time commitments  Procedure format  Debriefing, if necessary

27 15 September 201527 Potential Risks  Physical  Psychological  Privacy issues

28 15 September 201528 Potential Benefits  Nuremberg Code  Society benefits  Subjects plus others

29 15 September 201529 Compensation  Monetary incentives  Examples of other types o Tests o Travel  Compensation and biases

30 15 September 201530 Alternative Procedures  Treatment  Control Group  Hawthorne Effect

31 15 September 201531 Right to Refuse/Withdraw  Re-explain the voluntary aspect  No penalty for withdrawal  Always able to drop at any time

32 15 September 201532 Question Opportunities  At time of informed consent  Available by phone or email  Always there to answer questions

33 15 September 201533 Final Results  Subjects may receive study results  How to obtain these results  Publication plans must be given  Date when results are available

34 15 September 201534 Learning Objective 5  Recognize unethical research

35 15 September 201535 Citations for Misconduct  Issues of coercions  Deceptive language on consent forms  Falsification of documents  Conflict of interest issues

36 15 September 201536 Learning Objective 6  Act as a patient advocate during research investigations

37 15 September 201537 Patient Advocate Role  Protect privacy and dignity of subjects and to protect them from harm.  Be able to answer patient’s questions about Clinical trial. Clinical trial: are research studies conducted to evaluate new treatments, new drugs, or new or improved medical equipment.

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