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Hellenistic and Roman Culture

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1 Hellenistic and Roman Culture
Glencoe World History pages and p SSWH3 The student will examine the political, philosophical, and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400 CE. c. Analyze the contributions of Hellenistic and Roman culture; include law, gender, and science.

2 The Legacy of Alexander
Greek language, architecture, literature & art diffused throughout the territory Hellenistic = “to imitate Greeks” The Hellenistic Kingdoms 4 kingdoms developed that were ruler by Greek generals: Macedonia, Syria, Pergamum, & Egypt all were eventually conquered by the Romans Alexandria, Egypt became the largest city in region Encouraged Greek migration

3 Hellenistic Culture The libraries of Alexandria & Pergamum
Architecture & Sculpture: Founding & rebuilding cities in Asia Minor employed Greek architects & sculptors Art became more emotional & realistic (statues of women & children) Science: Aristarchus = Sun is the center of the Universe not widely accepted Eratosthenes = the Earth was round & circumference Euclid = Plain Geometry (the Elements) Archimedes of Syracuse = inventor & mathematician (Geometry, spheres, & Pi)

4 Hellenistic Philosophy & Literature
Centered in Athens Epicureanism = humans were free to follow self- interest as motivation Happiness was the goal of life the means to achieve happiness is the Pursuit of pleasure (freedom from emotional turmoil & worry), the only true good. Stoicism = developed by Zeno, believed happiness could be found only when people gained inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God (later embraced by the Romans) Literature: Apollonius of Rhodes wrote Argonautica (Epic Poem) Theocritis wrote shorter poems Menander wrote a new kind of comedies

5 Culture and Society in the Roman World
Roman Art and Architecture Produced realistic statues that included even unpleasant physical details Excelled in architecture including the arch, dome, vault, roads, bridges, and aqueducts The first to use concrete on a massive scale Roman Literature Virgil – poet who wrote Aeneid: written in honor of Rome Horace- writer who laughed at the weaknesses of humans Livy- historian who celebrated Rome’s greatness

6 The Roman Family Families led by the paterfamilias- the dominant male
Raised their children at home All (males & females) upper class children were expected to learn to read Father chose how children would be educated For females, 14 was the common age to get married, for males it was later (12 was the minimum) Boys became men at the age of 16 with a special ceremony Marriage meant for life, but divorce became fairly easy to obtain

7 Changing Roles By the second century A.D. important changes were occurring in the Roman family Upper class women had the right to own, inherit, and sell property Women were appreciated as enjoyable company and were the center of household life Upper class women could attend races, the theater, and events Women of rank were accompanied by maids and companions when they went out

8 Slavery In the ancient world no people had more slaves than the Romans
Greek slaves were in high demand Built roads, public buildings and farmed large estates for the wealthy Romans lived in great fear of their slaves Spartacus, a gladiator, led the most famous slave revolt in 73 BC


10 Daily Life in the City of Rome
Center of the Roman Empire Overcrowded and noisy Cart & wagon traffic was banned during the day An enormous gulf existed between the rich and the poor Rome boasted public buildings such as temples, markets, baths, theaters, and amphitheaters Entertainment was provided on a grand scale including horse & chariot races, dramatic performances, and gladiatorial shows


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