Presentation on theme: "Library Automation Presented to: Dr. Ijaz Miraj Presented by: Muhammad Tufail Khan Aneela Zahid Theoretical Foundation of Library Science MPhil in Library."— Presentation transcript:
Library Automation Presented to: Dr. Ijaz Miraj Presented by: Muhammad Tufail Khan Aneela Zahid Theoretical Foundation of Library Science MPhil in Library & Information Science
Contents: What is Automaton? What is Library Automaton? History of Library Automaton History of Library Automaton in Pakistan Need for Library Automation Library software Library Management System A library with an integrated library system General Features of an ILS –Cataloging Module –OPAC »Developments in OPACs –Circulation Module –Acquisitions Module –Serials Control Module –Add-on Module
Contents: Continue… Library Automation Standards –MARC Introduction to MARC Record: Sources of MARC Records: Structure of MARC Records: MARC Advantages: MARC Disadvantages: –Z39.50 Protocol: Library Automation: The Steps Technology Plan Selection and acquisition of ILMS Implementation Conclusion Reference
What is Automation? The dictionary defines automation as the technique of making an apparatus, a process, or a system operate automatically. Automation as the creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services. So we say; Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services
What is Library Automation? Library automation is the general term for information and communications technologies (ICT) that are used to replace manual systems in the library. Definition: The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users. An automated library is one where a computer system is used to manage one or several of the library's key functions such as acquisitions, serials control, cataloging, circulation and the public access catalog.
History of Library Automation: In 1588: The invention of the French "Book Wheel" allowed scholars to rotate between books by stepping on a pedal that turned a book table. The bookwheel, an alternative version of the revolving bookstand, is a device designed to allow one person to read a variety of heavy books in one location with ease. The books are rotated vertically.This device was invented by Italian military engineer Agostino Ramelli in 1588.
History of Library Automation: Continue… The Beginnings of Library Automation: In 1930: It could be said that library automation development began in the 1930's when punch card equipment was implemented for use in library circulation and acquisitions. A punched card, punch card, IBM card, or Hollerith card is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
History of Library Automation: Continue… In 1945: Bush(1945) wrote about a hypothetical "memex" system which he described as a mechanical library that would allow a user to view stored information from several different access points and look at several items simultaneously. His ideas are well known as the basis for hypertext. In 60s & 70s : This lead to an explosion of library automation in the 60's and 70's. Library Automation Officially is Underway: : In 1961, a significant invention by both Robert Noyce of Intel and Jack Kirby of Texas Instruments, working independently, was the integrated circuit. All the components of an electronic circuit were placed onto a single "chip" of silicon.
History of Library Automation: Continue… Between 1965 and 1968: LOC began the MARC I In 1980: The use of microcomputers during the 1980's expanded tremendously into the homes, schools, libraries and offices of many Americans. On-line Public Access Catalogs began to be used extensively the 1980's. The introduction of CD-ROMs in the late 80s has changed the way libraries operate. In 1990: The world wide web which had it's official start date as April of 1993 is becoming the fastest growing new provider of information. Expert systems and knowledge systems have become available in the 90s as both software and hardware capabilities have improved. In 21 st century: IT + IM = IR Information Technology + Information Management = Institutional Repository
History of Library Automation in Pakistan : in 1968, Library automation in Pakistan began with the creation of a Data Processing Unit at PASTIC in order to meet the demand of mechanization of information. In 1970, There was almost a complete silence in this regard. in 1980, incorporation of information science into several courses. Examples of these courses are: Information Storage and Retrieval; Data Processing in Libraries; and Information Network, Data Bank and Systems (Karachi University, 1981). in the mid-1980s, The first library in Pakistan Central Library of Sindh Agriculture University to make use of modern technology. The system comprised a Commodore CBM 8032, with dual drive floppy disk and dot matrix printer. At a similar time, the National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) made use of computer-based techniques in its information dissemination activities.
History of Library Automation in Pakistan : Continue… By early 1986, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) and North-Western Frontier Province (NWFP) Agricultural University was in the process of being computerized. The concept of network and networking started gaining ground in the shape of the LABELNET project. in 1989, CD-ROM searching was introduced for the first time at the National Agriculture Research Centre. The Pakistan Library Association, with the financial assistance of the Netherlands Library Development Project (Pakistan), established computer training centers in all four provincial capitals and in Islamabad for the training of working librarians.
Need for Library Automation Increased operational efficiencies Relieve professional staff from clerical chores so that they are available for user-oriented services Improve the quality, speed and effectiveness of services Improve access to remote users Improve access to resources on other networks and systems including the Web Improve the management of their physical and financial resources, Facilitate wider access to information for their clients, Facilitate wider dissemination of their information products and services Enable their participation in resource-sharing library networks, and Enable rapid communication with other libraries (including outreach libraries) and professional peers.
Library software: What is software? Basically, software is the program that runs the computer to produce the required results. It is, in fact, the most important component of the automation process. Someone said, A computer without software is similar to a man without his brain, or a library with neither books nor librarians. When we talk about library software, we mean the software needed for library housekeeping routines and information retrieval services. Examples of Library software's; dBase Foxpro INMAGIC CDS/ISIS Kitabdar Pak Library Software LAMP Koha
Library Management System: A library management system, also known as an automated library system is software that has been developed to handle basic housekeeping functions of a library. –Single function. –Integrated
A library with an integrated library system Cataloging File Server: Database Circulation Acquisition Serials Management OPAC Reference OPAC
General Features of an ILS: Functional modules – basic modules - cataloging, OPAC and circulation - - Add on- acquisition, serial control, interlibrary loan (ILL), and Web OPAC Operating systems Window, Ubuntu, Fedora, Linux, Sun Systems etc. Database systems - Oracle, Informix, MySQL, MS Access etc… Network architecture –client-server architecture that uses Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to communicate across networks (LANs and WANs) User interface –graphical user interface (GUI) is the norm for current systems because users find it easier to work with and it allows a wide range of tasks to be accomplished with a click of a mouse Library automation standards –library industry standards such as MARC and Z39.50
Cataloging Module: Used for the creation, storage, retrieval and management of bibliographic records and/or indexes. Defines the record format used in the database and provides for authority control author, subject headings etc. Usually there are two different interfaces for search and retrieval of the electronic catalog : For catalogers that allows them to maintain the library database (the main cataloging module), For users that allows them to search and display the results – the Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC)
OPAC: Cataloging activities using an ILS produce an electronic catalog. The means of access to the catalog for users which is limited to search and display is called an Online Public Access Catalog or OPAC. An OPAC is usually offered as an add-on module that is integral with the cataloging module. The specific search and display features of an OPAC vary from system to system.
Recent developments in ICT have enabled libraries to publish their catalogs on the Web making them accessible locally (on site) and/or remotely through the Web as a Web OPAC. Bibliographic database Web server PCs in LAN PCs connected to Internet Web OPAC OPAC Developments in OPACs:
1)Handles circulation activities such as: lending, return, renewal, and place on hold 2)Manages library materials - circulation type, location and status; patron database - patron type, profiles, privileges; and other transactions such as computation and payment of overdue fines, lost books, etc. 3)May have added value functions like: import, export, and backup and restore functions for the databases; inventory; report generation; and support for MARC, Z39.50, ILL standards. 4)May support integration with security systems that complement the self-check-in and checkout features of the circulation module. Circulation Module:
Acquisitions Module: 1)Automates the acquisition process - ordering, receiving, claiming materials from suppliers, and returns, and cancellations of materials 2)Used to maintain statistics, and in some cases manage accounting activities. 3)Acquisition can be done online if system is linked to an external network.
Serials Control Module: 1)Manages placing, canceling, claiming of orders; returning defective, unwanted and unordered material; and accounting and statistical information 2)Provides a system for recording issues and keeping track of undelivered issues by generating claim reports. 3)May permit serial ordering online.
Add-on Module: Usually offer additional functions and features as optional to the basic functions or as an integral part of a module. Examples are Report generation, Short loan transactions, import / export of records from / to MARC formats, Web OPAC, Z39.50 client and/or server services, and security systems linked to or integrated with the cataloging / circulation module.
Library Automation Standards : The standards adopted by the library industry and community that facilitate data interchange between libraries and institutions, and which are supported by most systems are MARC (Machine Readable Cataloguing) standards and Z39.50, the information search and retrieve protocol standard
MARC: The Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) formats are standards used for the representation of bibliographic and related information for books and other library materials in machine-readable form and their communication to and from other computers. Need for MARC : 1)The MARC standard allows libraries to share bibliographic resources with other libraries that also use it. 2)It also enables libraries to easily migrate to commercially available library automation systems, a majority of which support only the MARC standard 3)A bibliographic record in MARC format will allow the application system or library automation system to: –format the information correctly for printing a set of catalog cards or for displaying the information on a computer screen –search for and retrieve certain types of information within specific fields –display lists of items as required by the search
Introduction to MARC Record: History - Developed in the 1960s by the Library of Congress - Led to the foundation of national online catalogs such as OCLC and RLIN. Uses –Flexible tool to describe books, serials, maps, non-book materials, computer files, etc. –Standardized format permits sharing records
Sources of MARC Records: Bibliographic utilities –OCLC (Online Library Computer Catalogue) –RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) Vendor supplied/purchased –U.S.G.P.O (United States Government Printing Office) –OCLC PromptCat (Now merged in WorldCat*) Z39.50 sources –Library of Congress * WorldCat Cataloging Partners is a collaborative effort with materials vendors to reduce the cost of cataloging for libraries.
Structure of MARC Records: All share the same structure Each has a Leader Directory Field Leader : 1)The first section in a MARC record 2)Contains coded information about the record (not the resource) 3)Many elements are not displayed
Leader in a MARC Record:
Structure of MARC Records: Directory: 1)The second section in a MARC record 2)Lists the tag, length, and starting character position of each field in the MARC record 3)Is machine-generated and is not displayed, nor can it be altered manually
Structure of MARC Records: Fields: Logically divide information about the resource being described –Title –Author –Publication, etc. Fields are defined by the MARC21 Standard
Field Tags: Tags –3 character positions –Only numeric –Used as field names 100 1_ a Grahame, Kenneth, a The wind in the willows
Indicators: –2 character positions –Useful for computer manipulation –Not defined for all fields –Primarily numeric (and blank = undefined) –Must be read/assigned as individual values 100 1_ a Grahame, Kenneth, d a The wind in the willows / c by Kenneth Grahame.
Subfields: Subfields –Further divides the MARC field –Marked by delimiters combined with a subfield code –Not defined for some fields 100 1_ a Grahame, Kenneth, a The wind in the willows
Frequently Seen Field Tags: 100Personal Name Main Entry (Author) 245Title Statement 260Publication Information 300Physical Description 440Series 500 General Notes 504Bibliography 520 Summary Note 650Topical Subject 700Personal Name Added Entry 710Corporate Body Added Entry
MARC Record: s1974 ur a jW 0000 f eng00^a ^a ^nTAL30^aTales of the Amber Sea^bfairy tales of the peoples of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania ^ecompiled and retold in English by Irina Zheleznova^e illustrated by Anatoly Bilyukin00^aMoscowbRaduga Publishers c ^a259 p.bcol. ill.c22 cm.00^aEnglish language ed. originally published by Progress Publishers, ^aFairy taleszEstonia00^aFairy talesz Lithuania00^aFairy taleszLatvia11^aZheleznovahIrina L'vovna11 ^aBilyukinhAnatolyyill ^b cFOLKlIHmORD p0s TALzi
MARC Advantages: Timely – more accurate records of updates and changes. Maintenance is taken care of by regular reloading of records. Automated – the size and turbulence of databases make it time consuming to maintain records manually. Increased use of product – improved access through the catalogue maximizes the investment in the service. Greater efficiencies for document delivery and reference staff through a comprehensive integrated catalogue.
MARC Disadvantages: Record structure is difficult for a human to read Record structure is difficult to program Requires difficult control characters Large files (say over 20 Mb) are difficult to manipulate
Z39.50 Protocol: Z39.50 is generally defined as the information search and retrieve protocol standard used primarily by library and information related systems. The standard specifies a client/server-based protocol for searching and retrieving information from remote databases simultaneously using a single interface.
Library Automation: The Steps 1)Technology Plan 2)Selection and acquisition of ILMS 3)Implementation
Technology Plan and Project Proposal: In planning and implementing library automation, a thorough study of the librarys existing system as well as the librarys vision is necessary to enable you to prepare a good technology plan and project proposal. Steps: 1)Vision 2)Present status 3)Requirement: Gaps 4)Feasibility 5)Technology Plan 6)Project proposal
Technology Plan and Project Proposal: Continue… Vision: A vision is a dream. It is a vivid picture of what you would like your library to become in the near future. It is based on the mission of your library, the needs of your users and on the trends in library service. A vision provides direction and a philosophy for the library. Determining Present Status : It involves gathering data about the librarys operations, facilities, collections, procedures, staff expertise, etc. Data Source; Statistics Staff profile Patron profile Policies and procedures Functional specifications
Technology Plan and Project Proposal: Continue… Determine your Requirements: By comparing the actual status with the objectives of the project, the systems requirements can be determined. Feasibility study: It is designed to answer: –Is the proposed system possible? –Is it necessary? –What other options are available? –Is it affordable? Technology Plan: Written document Contains: Vision, Goals and Objectives, Components of the project in terms of needs to achieve the vision, Specifications for your system requirements, Financial estimates, Action plan and Time table for the project.
Technology Plan and Project Proposal: Continue… Technology Plan: Proposals are- a.based on the technology plan. b.prepared for presentation to funding agencies, hence they must be affordable for the funding agency They must follow the format of the funding agency and they must be within the thrust of the funding agency.
Selection and Acquisition of ILMS: Methods of Library Automation: To determine the best package for your library, analyze and identify your needs and match it with the features and functions of integrated library systems. Borrowed System Turnkey System Vendor Based System In house Development
Steps in selecting an integrated library system: Analyze and identify your needs Develop criteria for evaluation based on your needs assessment Read relevant reviews of library automation systems and related technologies and standards Prepare a short list of library software packages, their features, functional modules available, and standards supported Ask libraries for an honest evaluation of their library management system If possible, visit local libraries or institutions using a library management system Ask vendors for a demo version to try out, or if available download from their site on the Net Determine and compare initial and total cost of each library system
Implementation and Integration of ILMS: Implementation includes all activities after management has decided to automate the library and approved the plan. Strategic Plan Data Conversion Pilot/test run Full Implementation Post Implementation Review
Interrelationships of key factors in the operations of a library Suppliers of information: Jobbers Publishers Authors The Library: Management Content Collection) Services Staff Infrastructure Networking activities Users: Needs Knowledge Skill
Conclusion: In conclusion, it might be stated that library automation is in its infancy in Pakistan. No serious efforts have been made in the field of library software in a proper manner. With only six or seven years experience in library automation, very few people have been trained well in library computerization. There is a lack of resourceful persons in the country. It is the duty of our professional associations and library schools to solve the problems of library software and its appropriate training in the country. A MARC format for Pakistan should be developed. None of this can be done without the help of government. The Government should aid libraries and supervise their struggles for library automation
Reference: Haider, S. J. (1998). Library automation in Pakistan. International Information & Library Review, 30, Malik, K. M. (1996). The status of library automation in Pakistan. Library Review, 45(6), Mahmood, K. (1999). The development of computerised library services in Pakistan. Asian Libraries, 8(9), ElecKeyPunch.htm