Presentation on theme: "Library Automation Presented to: Dr. Ijaz Miraj"— Presentation transcript:
1Library Automation Presented to: Dr. Ijaz Miraj Presented by: Muhammad Tufail Khan Aneela ZahidTheoretical Foundation of Library ScienceMPhil in Library & Information Science
2Contents: What is Automaton? What is Library Automaton? History of Library AutomatonHistory of Library Automaton in PakistanNeed for Library AutomationLibrary softwareLibrary Management SystemA library with an integrated library systemGeneral Features of an ILSCataloging ModuleOPACDevelopments in OPACsCirculation ModuleAcquisitions ModuleSerials Control ModuleAdd-on Module
3Contents: Continue… Library Automation Standards MARC Introduction to MARC Record:Sources of MARC Records:Structure of MARC Records:MARC Advantages:MARC Disadvantages:Z Protocol:Library Automation: The StepsTechnology PlanSelection and acquisition of ILMSImplementationConclusionReference
4What is Automation? The dictionary defines automation as “the technique of making an apparatus, a process, or a system operate automatically.”Automation as “ the creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services.”So we say;Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services
5What is Library Automation? Library automation is the general term for information and communications technologies (ICT) that are used to replace manual systems in the library.Definition: The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users. An automated library is one where a computer system is used to manage one or several of the library's key functions such as acquisitions, serials control, cataloging, circulation and the public access catalog.
6History of Library Automation: In 1588:The invention of the French "Book Wheel" allowed scholars to rotate between books by stepping on a pedal that turned a book table.“The bookwheel, an alternative version of the revolving bookstand, is a device designed to allow one person to read a variety of heavy books in one location with ease. The books are rotated vertically .This device was invented by Italian military engineer Agostino Ramelli in 1588.”
7History of Library Automation: Continue… The Beginnings of Library Automation:In 1930:It could be said that library automation development began in the 1930's when punch card equipment was implemented for use in library circulation and acquisitions.“A punched card, punch card, IBM card, or Hollerith card is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.“
8History of Library Automation: Continue… In 1945: Bush(1945) wrote about a hypothetical "memex" system which he described as a mechanical library that would allow a user to view stored information from several different access points and look at several items simultaneously. His ideas are well known as the basis for hypertext. In 60’s & 70’s : This lead to an explosion of library automation in the 60's and 70's. Library Automation Officially is Underway: : In 1961, a significant invention by both Robert Noyce of Intel and Jack Kirby of Texas Instruments, working independently, was the integrated circuit. All the components of an electronic circuit were placed onto a single "chip" of silicon.
9History of Library Automation: Continue… Between 1965 and 1968: LOC began the MARC I In 1980: The use of microcomputers during the 1980's expanded tremendously into the homes, schools, libraries and offices of many Americans. On-line Public Access Catalogs began to be used extensively the 1980's. The introduction of CD-ROMs in the late 80s has changed the way libraries operate. In 1990: The world wide web which had it's official start date as April of 1993 is becoming the fastest growing new provider of information. Expert systems and knowledge systems have become available in the 90s as both software and hardware capabilities have improved. In 21st century: “IT + IM = IR” Information Technology + Information Management = Institutional Repository
10History of Library Automation in Pakistan : in 1968, Library automation in Pakistan began with the creation of a Data Processing Unit at PASTIC in order to meet the demand of mechanization of information. In 1970, There was almost a complete silence in this regard. in 1980, incorporation of information science into several courses. Examples of these courses are: Information Storage and Retrieval; Data Processing in Libraries; and Information Network, Data Bank and Systems (Karachi University, 1981). in the mid-1980s, The first library in Pakistan “Central Library of Sindh Agriculture University” to make use of modern technology. The system comprised a Commodore CBM 8032, with dual drive floppy disk and dot matrix printer . At a similar time, the National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) made use of computer-based techniques in its information dissemination activities.
11History of Library Automation in Pakistan : Continue… By early 1986, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) and North-Western Frontier Province (NWFP) Agricultural University was in the process of being computerized. The concept of network and networking started gaining ground in the shape of the LABELNET project. in 1989, CD-ROM searching was introduced for the first time at the National Agriculture Research Centre. The Pakistan Library Association, with the financial assistance of the Netherlands Library Development Project (Pakistan), established computer training centers in all four provincial capitals and in Islamabad for the training of working librarians.
12Need for Library Automation Increased operational efficienciesRelieve professional staff from clerical chores so that they are available for user-oriented servicesImprove the quality, speed and effectiveness of servicesImprove access to remote usersImprove access to resources on other networks and systems including the WebImprove the management of their physical and financial resources,Facilitate wider access to information for their clients,Facilitate wider dissemination of their information products and servicesEnable their participation in resource-sharinglibrary networks, andEnable rapid communication with other libraries(including outreach libraries) and professional peers.
13Library software:What is software? Basically, software is the program that runs the computer to produce the required results. It is, in fact, the most important component of the automation process. Someone said, “A computer without software is similar to a man without his brain, or a library with neither books nor librarians”. When we talk about library software, we mean the software needed for library housekeeping routines and information retrieval services.Examples of Library software's;dBaseFoxproINMAGICCDS/ISISKitabdarPak Library SoftwareLAMPKoha
14Library Management System: A library management system, also known as an automated library system is software that has been developed to handle basic housekeeping functions of a library.Single function.Integrated
15A library with an integrated library system CatalogingFile Server:DatabaseCirculationAcquisitionSerialsManagementOPACReference
16General Features of an ILS: Functional modules– basic modules - cataloging, OPAC and circulation -- Add on- acquisition, serial control, interlibrary loan (ILL), and Web OPACOperating systemsWindow, Ubuntu, Fedora, Linux, Sun Systems etc.Database systems- Oracle, Informix, MySQL, MS Access etc…Network architecture–client-server architecture that uses Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to communicate across networks (LANs and WANs)User interface–graphical user interface (GUI) is the norm for current systems because users find it easier to work with and it allows a wide range of tasks to be accomplished with a click of a mouseLibrary automation standards–library industry standards such as MARC and Z39.50
17Cataloging Module:Used for the creation, storage, retrieval and management of bibliographic records and/or indexes.Defines the record format used in the database and provides for authority control author, subject headings etc.Usually there are two different interfaces for search and retrieval of the electronic catalog :For catalogers that allows them to maintain the library database (the main cataloging module),For users that allows them to search and display the results – the Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC)
18OPAC:Cataloging activities using an ILS produce an electronic catalog. The means of access to the catalog for users which is limited to search and display is called an Online Public Access Catalog or OPAC. An OPAC is usually offered as an add-on module that is integral with the cataloging module. The specific search and display features of an OPAC vary from system to system.
19Developments in OPACs: Web OPACWeb serverPC’s in LANPC’s connectedto InternetBibliographicdatabaseRecent developments in ICT have enabled libraries to publish their catalogs on the Web making them accessible locally (on site) and/or remotely through the Web as a Web OPAC.OPAC
20Circulation Module:Handles circulation activities such as: lending, return, renewal, and place on holdManages library materials - circulation type, location and status; patron database - patron type, profiles, privileges; and other transactions such as computation and payment of overdue fines, lost books, etc.May have added value functions like: import, export, and backup and restore functions for the databases; inventory; report generation; and support for MARC, Z39.50, ILL standards.May support integration with security systems that complement the self-check-in and checkout features of the circulation module.
21Acquisitions Module:Automates the acquisition process - ordering, receiving, claiming materials from suppliers, and returns, and cancellations of materialsUsed to maintain statistics, and in some cases manage accounting activities.Acquisition can be done online if system is linked to an external network.
22Serials Control Module: Manages placing, canceling, claiming of orders; returning defective, unwanted and unordered material; and accounting and statistical informationProvides a system for recording issues and keeping track of undelivered issues by generating claim reports.May permit serial ordering online.
23Add-on Module:Usually offer additional functions and features as optional to the basic functions or as an integral part of a module. Examples are Report generation, Short loan transactions, import / export of records from / to MARC formats, Web OPAC, Z39.50 client and/or server services, and security systems linked to or integrated with the cataloging / circulation module.
24Library Automation Standards : The standards adopted by the library industry and community that facilitate data interchange between libraries and institutions, and which are supported by most systems are MARC (Machine Readable Cataloguing) standards and Z39.50, the information search and retrieve protocol standard
25MARC:The Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) formats are standards used for the representation of bibliographic and related information for books and other library materials in machine-readable form and their communication to and from other computers.Need for MARC :The MARC standard allows libraries to share bibliographic resources with other libraries that also use it.It also enables libraries to easily migrate to commercially available library automation systems, a majority of which support only the MARC standardA bibliographic record in MARC format will allow the application system or library automation system to:format the information correctly for printing a set of catalog cards or for displaying the information on a computer screensearch for and retrieve certain types of information within specific fieldsdisplay lists of items as required by the search
26Introduction to MARC Record: History- Developed in the 1960s by the Library of Congress- Led to the foundation of national online catalogs such as OCLCand RLIN.UsesFlexible tool to describe books, serials, maps, non-book materials, computer files, etc.Standardized format permits sharing records
27Sources of MARC Records: Bibliographic utilitiesOCLC (Online Library Computer Catalogue)RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network)Vendor supplied/purchasedU.S.G.P.O (United States Government Printing Office)OCLC PromptCat (Now merged in WorldCat*)Z39.50 sourcesLibrary of Congress*WorldCat Cataloging Partners is a collaborative effort with materials vendors to reduce the cost of cataloging for libraries.
28Structure of MARC Records: All share the same structureEach has aLeaderDirectoryFieldLeader :The first section in a MARC recordContains coded information about the record (not the resource)Many elements are not displayed
30Structure of MARC Records: Directory:The second section in a MARC recordLists the tag, length, and starting character position of each field in the MARC recordIs machine-generated and is not displayed, nor can it be altered manually
32Structure of MARC Records: Fields:Logically divide information about the resource being describedTitleAuthorPublication, etc.Fields are defined by the MARC21 Standard
33Field Tags: Tags 3 character positions Only numeric Used as field names100 1_ ‡a Grahame, Kenneth,‡a The wind in the willows
34Indicators: 2 character positions Useful for computer manipulation Not defined for all fieldsPrimarily numeric (and blank = undefined)Must be read/assigned as individual values100 1_ ‡a Grahame, Kenneth, ‡d‡a The wind in the willows / ‡c by Kenneth Grahame.
35Subfields: Subfields Further divides the MARC field Marked by delimiters combined with a subfield codeNot defined for some fields100 1_ ‡a Grahame, Kenneth, ‡‡a The wind in the willows
36Frequently Seen Field Tags: 100 Personal Name Main Entry (Author)245 Title Statement260 Publication Information300 Physical Description440 Series500 General Notes504 Bibliography520 Summary Note650 Topical Subject700 Personal Name Added Entry710 Corporate Body Added Entry
37MARC Record:s ur a jW f eng00^a ^a ^nTAL30^aTales of the Amber Sea^bfairy tales of the peoples of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania ^ecompiled and retold in English by Irina Zheleznova^e illustrated by Anatoly Bilyukin00^aMoscowbRaduga Publishers c ^a259 p.bcol. ill.c22 cm.00^aEnglish language ed. originally published by Progress Publishers, ^aFairy taleszEstonia00^aFairy talesz Lithuania00^aFairy taleszLatvia11^aZheleznovahIrina L'vovna11 ^aBilyukinhAnatolyyill ^b cFOLKlIHmORD p0s TALzi
38MARC Advantages:Timely – more accurate records of updates and changes. Maintenance is taken care of by regular reloading of records.Automated – the size and ‘turbulence’ of databases make it timeconsuming to maintain records manually.Increased use of product – improved access through the cataloguemaximizes the investment in the service.Greater efficiencies for document delivery and reference staffthrough a comprehensive integrated catalogue.
39MARC Disadvantages:Record structure is difficult for a human to ‘read’Record structure is difficult to programRequires difficult control charactersLarge files (say over 20 Mb) are difficult to manipulate
40Z Protocol:Z39.50 is generally defined as the information search and retrieve protocol standard used primarily by library and information related systems.The standard specifies a client/server-based protocol for searching and retrieving information from remote databases simultaneously using a single interface.
41Library Automation: The Steps Technology PlanSelection and acquisition of ILMSImplementation
42Technology Plan and Project Proposal: In planning and implementing library automation, a thorough study of the library’s existing system as well as the library’s vision is necessary to enable you to prepare a good technology plan and project proposal.Steps:VisionPresent statusRequirement: GapsFeasibilityTechnology PlanProject proposal
43Technology Plan and Project Proposal: Continue… Vision:A vision is a dream. It is a vivid picture of what you would like your library to become in the near future. It is based on the mission of your library, the needs of your users and on the trends in library service. A vision provides direction and a philosophy for the library.Determining Present Status :It involves gathering data about the library’s operations, facilities, collections, procedures, staff expertise, etc.Data Source;StatisticsStaff profilePatron profilePolicies and proceduresFunctional specifications
44Technology Plan and Project Proposal: Continue… Determine your Requirements:By comparing the actual status with the objectivesof the project, the systems requirements canbe determined.Feasibility study:It is designed to answer:Is the proposed system possible?Is it necessary?What other options are available?Is it affordable?Technology Plan:Written document Contains: Vision, Goals and Objectives, Components of the project in terms of needs to achieve the vision , Specifications for your system requirements, Financial estimates, Action plan and Time table for the project.
45Technology Plan and Project Proposal: Continue… Proposals are-based on the technology plan.prepared for presentation to funding agencies, hence they must be affordable for the funding agencyThey must follow the format of the funding agency and they must be within the thrust of the funding agency.
46Selection and Acquisition of ILMS: Methods of Library Automation:To determine the best package for your library, analyze and identify your needs and match it with the features and functions of integrated library systems.In house DevelopmentTurnkey SystemVendor Based SystemBorrowed System
47Steps in selecting an integrated library system: Analyze and identify your needsDevelop criteria for evaluation based on your needs assessmentRead relevant reviews of library automation systems and related technologies and standardsPrepare a short list of library software packages, their features, functional modules available, and standards supportedAsk libraries for an honest evaluation of their library management systemIf possible, visit local libraries or institutions using a library management systemAsk vendors for a demo version to try out, or if available download from their site on the NetDetermine and compare initial and total cost of each library system
48Implementation and Integration of ILMS: Implementation includes all activities after management has decided to automate the library and approved the plan.Strategic PlanData ConversionPilot/test runFull ImplementationPost Implementation Review
49Interrelationships of key factors in the operations of a library Suppliers of information:JobbersPublishersAuthorsThe Library:ManagementContent Collection)ServicesStaffInfrastructureNetworking activitiesUsers:NeedsKnowledgeSkill
50Conclusion:In conclusion, it might be stated that library automation is in its infancy in Pakistan. No serious efforts have been made in the field of library software in a proper manner. With only six or seven years’ experience in library automation, very few people have been trained well in library computerization. There is a lack of resourceful persons in the country. It is the duty of our professional associations and library schools to solve the problems of library software and its appropriate training in the country. A MARC format for Pakistan should be developed. None of this can be done without the help of government. The Government should aid libraries and supervise their struggles for library automation
51Reference:Haider, S. J. (1998). Library automation in Pakistan. International Information & Library Review, 30,Malik, K. M. (1996). The status of library automation in Pakistan. Library Review, 45(6),Mahmood, K. (1999). The development of computerised library services in Pakistan. Asian Libraries, 8(9),