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Introduction to Database Management

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Database Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Database Management
Chapter 5 Introduction to Database Management

2 Data Vital organizational resource
Data resource management is a managerial action that applies technology to the task of managing data

3 Data Concepts Character - a character is a single element of data and can be alphabetic, numeric, or some other ‘legal’ character Field - A field is a grouping of characters that describes an attribute of and entity Record - A logical grouping of fields relating to the same entity

4 Data Concepts cont. Records can be fixed length or variable length
File - A group of related records is a file or commonly known as a table. Tables are classified by levels of permanence transaction - daily sales or production master - employee_master, item_master history - usually backups

5 Database A database is an organized and integrated collection of records Data in a database is independent of the programs that use the data

6 The Database Management Approach
Foundation of modern data management Database management approach - data records and objects are consolidated and accessed by multiple application programs Database Management System - software interface between users and databases - uses DBMS software to create, interrogate, update, and maintain a database to provide information for users

7 Database Management Approach
Three common activities update and maintain common databases to reflect transactions and organizational data provide information for end users applications provide easy interface for ad hoc (on demand) requests, generation of reports, and database interrogation

8 DBMS A database management system is a set of programs that control four necessary functions in the database world database development database interrogation database maintenance application development

9 Database Development Database management application packages allow for the development of databases Database administrators (DBAs) use a data definition language to design and develop tables, relationships, and a data dictionary Data dictionary - A catalog or directory of information about the data (meta data)

10 Database Interrogation
Database interrogation (extracting data/information) is accomplished by using a query or a report generator Query language offer immediate response to request no difficult programming

11 Database Interrogation cont
A report generator offers immediate video or paper response to queries No difficult programming Can format or design reports to meet individual needs/preferences

12 SQL and QBE Structured Query Language - A ‘standardized’ language that allows for simple database interrogation Basic form for SQL statement is Select ….. From…… Where…..

13 SQL and QBE Query By Example - query language similar to SQL except the query is written in the ‘background’ as the user points and clicks Graphical and Natural queries are essentially point and click utilities that are translated into SQL

14 Database Maintenance Database maintenance occurs through transaction processing and the ACID functions A - add C - change I - inquiry D - delete

15 Application Development
Databases are the backbone of system development A data manipulation language allows for necessary data handling needs

16 Database types There are several major types of databases
operational databases data warehouses distributed external

17 Operational Databases
These databases store data that is necessary for the operations of an organization such as transaction databases, subject area databases Very important for this type of database to be accurate

18 Data Warehouse A data warehouse stores data from previous years or time periods that are not necessary for the current operations of an organization May be subdivided into DATA MARTS that contain certain data elements Data mining is the process of extracting data, trend analysis, and historical patterns

19 Distributed Databases
Can be copies of organizational databases that reside in different geographical areas, on different servers (for functional areas), or on handheld or labtop devices

20 External Databases Privately owned online databases usually accessible for a fee Can be free Usually associated with Internet

21 Data Resource Management
Data resource management involves several tasks Database Administration Data Planning Data Administration

22 Database Administration
Provides for the development and maintenance of the data dictionary Monitoring of database and resource performance Enforcement of standards and security

23 Data Planning Corporate planning and analysis function
Data architecture for firms data needs (must fit within the strategic missions) Should be a major issue in strategic planning Long range planning

24 Data Administration Establishment and enforcement of policies and procedures for managing data resource Collect, store, and disseminate information in an organizationally standardized manner Planning and support of data and the establishment of data planning activities Develop policies and standards for database design

25 Benefits/Limitations
Reduction of replication and redundant data Data integration Users can obtain information in more usable form Programming is simplified Data integrity and security is ensured

26 Benefits/Limitations
Complexity Can be very expensive to develop and maintain Large investment LARGE More difficult processing procedures (must work through and additional layer of software)

27 Technical Foundations of Database Management
Data resources must be organized in a logical manner This allows for easy access, efficient processing, quick retrieval of data Multiple structures………...

28 Hierarchical Early mainframe packages used the hierarchical structure of database management Treelike structure Records are dependent on a root record Relationships are one to many (only related to the element above it)

29 Network Structure Able to represent more complicated structures and relationships Still used in many mainframe packages Allows for many to many relationships Access is not one dimensional and can follow many paths

30 Relational Structure Most popular in use today
Used by most micro databases, also used in mini systems and mainframe systems Data elements stored in tables Table related through the use of a common field

31 Multidimensional Database Structure
Variation of the relational model Compact and easy to use Support OLAP

32 Object Oriented Structure
The key technology of multimedia web-based applications An object consists of data plus the instructions to be applied Inheritance is the acceptance of characteristics of other objects

33 Database Access Databases rely on identifying characteristics called key fields or in the case of older DB types a pointer field Key field is the primary identifier Must be unique among all other records

34 Sequential Access Records are stored in a specific order based on the key field Sequential processing is fairly fast when dealing with similar records (fixed length) Requires sorting, indexing, etc. Best in batch processing situations

35 Direct Access No fixed arrangement of records
Works with immediate response systems Three ways for direct access to occur Key transformation Index Indexed Sequential access

36 Next Week Chapter 5 data base planning and design
Chapter 6 IS for Business Operations and E-commerce

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