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How the Next Generation Internet and Cyber-infrastructure can be more significant than carbon taxes or cap and trade in reducing Global Warming Bill St.

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Presentation on theme: "How the Next Generation Internet and Cyber-infrastructure can be more significant than carbon taxes or cap and trade in reducing Global Warming Bill St."— Presentation transcript:

1 How the Next Generation Internet and Cyber-infrastructure can be more significant than carbon taxes or cap and trade in reducing Global Warming Bill St. Arnaud CANARIE Inc – Unless otherwise noted all material in this slide deck may be reproduced, modified or distributed without prior permission of the author

2 The Climate Change Imperative >One of, if not, the greatest threat to our future society and economy is global warming. >Oil and fossil fuels are expected to be in short supply and significantly more expensive – Major impact for places like Korea >15-30% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 will be needed to keep the temperature increase under 2 °C, and a deeper reduction by 60-80% may be needed by 2050.* >It will be necessary to go beyond incremental improvements in energy efficiency, current life-styles and business practices. Significantly more drastic measures will need to be undertaken *International Panel on Climate Change

3 An inefficient truth- ICT impact on CO2 emissions* >It is estimated that the ICT industry alone produces CO2 emissions that is equivalent to the carbon output of the entire aviation industry. >ICT is now 5 th largest industry in terms of consumption of power >ICT emissions growth fastest of any sector in society, doubling every 4 years >One small computer server generates as much carbon dioxide as a SUV with a fuel efficiency of 15 miles per gallon >Nearly 40% of servers at universities and businesses are under utilized by more than 50%. *An Inefficient Tuth:

4 Solutions to reduce global warming >Carbon taxes – Politically difficult to sell >Cap and trade – Useful for big emitters like power companies – Addresses only supply side of CO2 >Carbon offsets – Immature market with no standards – But addresses demand side of CO2 by businesses and consumers >Carbon Neutrality imposed by law – Growing in popularity especially as protests over gas tax escalates >But there may be another approach….

5 Next Generation Internet may allow us to achieve Kyoto targets Dr Yuji INOUE's presentation In 2012 application of ICTs to other sectors will contribute to reduction of 68 million tons of CO2, which is equivalent to 5.4% of CO2 emission in 1990in Japan. 90% of Kyoto commitments by Japan

6 SMART 2020: enabling the low carbon economy in the information age Internet and ICT could reduce emissions by 15 per cent and save global industry $US 800 billion in annual energy costs by 2020. mart2020pressrelease mart2020pressrelease ICTs unique ability to monitor and maximize energy efficiency both within and outside of its own sector could cut CO2 greater than the current annual emissions of either the US or China. One of the biggest contribution to reducing CO2 emissions by Internet and ICT is through virtualization or de-materialization of existing physical products and services. GeSI – Smart 2020 report

7 Next Generation Internet to reduce Global Warming >PROMPT: New $50m research consortium made up of Bell Canada, Nortel, Ericsson, McGill, UoT etc – >Any future internet network, project, program or application must have as its primary objective of a zero carbon footprint >Zero carbon condition applies to – all optical, wireless and last mile networks – all routers, switches, and web servers – all applications, computers – and all customer devices such as PCs, mobile phones, PDAs etc

8 Zero Carbon Strategy for NGI – 4 step strategy 1.More efficient computers and network equipment – Marginal gains due to Khazzoom-Brookes postulate 2.Virtualization of computer and networks using grids and SOA 3.Deployment of data centers at renewable energy sites for business continuity and carbon reduction linked by optical networks 4.New Internet network and computer architectures that take advantage of remote zero carbon data centers linked by next generation Internet

9 Optical networks and virtualization the solution >Optical networks (as opposed to electronic routed networks) have much smaller carbon footprint >Significant reduced CO2 impacts are possible through use of cyber-infrastructure tools like virtualization, clouds, SOA, grids, Web 2.0, etc. >New zero carbon computer and network architectures needed to connect remote computers, databases and instruments will be essential

10 Zero Carbon data centers connected by optical networks

11 Next Generation network essential for zero carbon data centers >Purchasing green power locally is expensive with significant transmission line losses >Demand for green power within cities expected to grow dramatically >Cyber-infrastructure and data centers DONT NEED TO BE LOCATED IN CITIES or at UNIVERSITIES – -Cooling also a major problem in cities >Most renewable energy sites are very remote and impractical to connect to electrical grid. – But can be easily reached by an optical network >Locating cyber-infrastructure and data centers at remote renewable energy sites connected by optical networks will provide access to cheap green power not practical to use by other industry sectors

12 GENI with Zero Carbon Footprint Sensor Network Thin Client Edge Site Source: Peter Freeman NSF Mobile Wireless Network Wind Power Substrate Router Solar Power Wireless Base Station

13 Possible research areas >Dynamic all optical networks with solar or wind powered optical repeaters >Wireless mesh ad-hoc networks with mini-solar panels at nodes >New Internet architectures with servers, computers and storage collocated at remote renewable energy sites such as hydro dams, windmill farms, etc >New routing and resiliency architectures for wired and wireless networks for massively disruptive topology changes due to setting sun or waning winds that power routers and servers >New grid and data storage architectures with distributed replication and virtual machines (VM turntables, Hadoop) for follow the sun and follow the wind grids >New stats and measurement analysis of bits per carbon (bpc) utilization, optimized carbon routing tables, etc

14 Internet architecture to reduce carbon emissions Virtual routers split along address blocks Each lightpath traffic engineered (pre sorted) to carry packets for a given address block 0.x.x.x -63.x.x.x 64.x.x.x-127.x.x.x 128.x.x.x -191.x.x.x 192.x.x.x-255.x.x.x 0.x.x.x -63.x.x.x 64.x.x.x-127.x.x.x 127.x.x.x 192.x.x.x Distributed Virtual Routers With UCLP & Manticore

15 Details of Internet networks to reduce carbon emissions >Build multiple (roughly) parallel virtual networks on an optical substrate using UCLP (or GENI) >Split up Internet forwarding table along /16 (or finer) boundaries and assign each forwarding table to separate lightpath networks with their own routing and topology >Encourage edge connected users to pre-sort packets aligned with address block boundaries for each connected lightpath >Build widely distributed, heavily parallelized routed network with routing nodes at renewable energy sites >Use thousands of cheap PC based routers (or virtual routers) to do fowarding and routing for each address block network >Encourage remote forwarding with optical back haul using dedicated optical channels to customers >Use standard Internet re-routing for the follow the sun and follow the wind strategies as routers come on and off line

16 Other sectors (40%) (e.g. manufacturing, coal mining, export transport) Emissions under direct consumer control (35%) Consumer influenced sectors (25%) (e.g. retail, food and drink, wholesale, agriculture, public sector) Heating Private cars Electricity Other transport Consumers control or influence 60 per cent of emissions

17 Carbon Rewards rather carbon taxes >Rather than penalize consumers and businesses for carbon emissions, can we reward them for reducing their carbon emissions? – Although carbon taxes revenue neutral, the payee rarely sees any direct benefit >Examples: – Providing free download music, video, electronic textbooks, – Advanced tele-presence systems in exchange for voluntary carbon fees assessed on parking, travel, and inefficient high energy consuming computer systems, etc. – Provide free eBooks and readers to those who use public transport >Payment to copyright holders is made with carbon offset dollars – Can be redeemed for real dollars from carbon off setters or double down with copyright holders own CO2 reduction strategy

18 Problem: No business case for FTTh >Broadband networks, whether wireless or FTTx, overbuilders, municipal, requires huge capital outlay. In addition: – Low takeup – Tyranny of the takeup – Revenues declining as more and more applications are free – Over the top providers are capturing most of the value >Many companies starting to offer free broadband, both wired and wireless – Inuk, Sky, TalkTalk, Google, Microsoft, Cable and Wireless etc – Cable TV services are moving to the Internet >Business case for closed networks like Verizon FiOS are uncertain

19 Carbon Reward Strategy for last mile infrastructure >Provide free high speed Internet and fiber to the home with resale of electrical and gas power >Customer pays a premium on their gas and electric bill >Customers encouraged to save money through reduced energy consumption and reduced carbon output >Customer NOT penalized if they reduce energy consumption – May end up paying substantially less then they do now for gas + electricity + broadband + telephone + cable >Network operator gets guaranteed revenue based on energy consumption rather than fickle triple play

20 Thank you >More information > >

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