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Understanding Intelligence Psychologists define intelligence as the ability to understand and adapt to the environment using a combination of inherited.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Intelligence Psychologists define intelligence as the ability to understand and adapt to the environment using a combination of inherited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Intelligence Psychologists define intelligence as the ability to understand and adapt to the environment using a combination of inherited abilities and learned experiences. Problem with reification- viewing an abstract, immaterial concept s if it were a concrete thing. I believe the answer to the problem is...

2 Francis Galton Started the Eugenics movement Galton (1883) wanted to breed superior people and create a master race.

3 What is Intelligence? Factor Analysis Factor Analysis statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie ones total score used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie ones total score General Intelligence (g) General Intelligence (g) factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities measured by every task on an intelligence test measured by every task on an intelligence test

4 Charles Spearman – was the spearhead in the development of intelligence theories with factor analysis and his g general intelligence theory. Charles Spearman – was the spearhead in the development of intelligence theories with factor analysis and his g general intelligence theory.

5 Theories of Intelligence Charles Spearmang factor Charles Spearmang factor Louis Thurstoneintelligence as a persons pattern of mental abilities Louis Thurstoneintelligence as a persons pattern of mental abilities ( 7 clusters: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ( 7 clusters: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory) ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory) Howard Gardnermultiple intelligences Howard Gardnermultiple intelligences Sternberg–triarchic theory Sternberg–triarchic theory

6 Theories of Intelligence Charles Spearmang factor Charles Spearmang factor Louis Thurstoneintelligence as a persons pattern of mental abilities Louis Thurstoneintelligence as a persons pattern of mental abilities Howard Gardnermultiple intelligences Howard Gardnermultiple intelligences Sternberg–triarchic theory Sternberg–triarchic theory Cantor, Kihlstrom-social intelligence Cantor, Kihlstrom-social intelligence Slovey, Mayer, Goleman-emotional intelligence Slovey, Mayer, Goleman-emotional intelligence

7 Are Gifted People Easily Identified? You have been asked to select a student, based on the three biographies below, to enroll in a new program for gifted students. Look over the three biographies and decide which student you would choose. Candidate 1Candidate 2Candidate 3 NameBill BrownAlvin LaneAllen Erickson AppearanceAveragePlainHomely I.Q School BehaviorAloof, OrganizerWell-likedUnsociable, disturbed Physical HealthExcellentLarge for ageSickly Emotional HealthExcellentEasygoing, poor self-concept Had emotional breakdown Interests Chess, MathSports, reading, telling jokes Withdraws to fantasy world Career GoalsNone mentionedWork in a retail store None mentioned Personal GoalsNone mentionedBusinessmanIndependence from family TalentsPhotographic Good debaterPlays violin, likes to read memory, published alone. original math formula at age 10 Which student did you select and why?

8 Gardners 8 Intelligences Linguistic Linguistic Logical-mathematical Logical-mathematical Musical Musical Spatial Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal (self) Intrapersonal (self) Interpersonal (other people) Interpersonal (other people) Naturalist Naturalist (p. 434 chart in text) (p. 434 chart in text)

9 Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences

10 Robert Sternberg Creative intelligence ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge Creative intelligence ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge Analytic intelligence mental processes used in learning how to solve problems Analytic intelligence mental processes used in learning how to solve problems Practical intelligence ability to adapt to the environment (street smarts) Practical intelligence ability to adapt to the environment (street smarts) THINKING CAP THINKING CAP

11 Are There Multiple Intelligences? Social Intelligence Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions

12 Daniel Golemans Theory of Emotional Intelligence The ability to feel, deal with, and recognize emotions makes up its own kind of intelligence. Emotional self-awareness: knowing what we are feeling and why Managing and harnessing emotions: knowing how to control and respond to feelings appropriately Empathy: knowing what another person is feeling Aspects of this theory include:

13 Creativity Intelligence and creativity are somewhat, but not closely, related. People who are creative tend to excel in one area. One measure of creativity is the ability to break set, or think about something in an entirely new way to problem solve.

14 Intelligence and Creativity Creativity Creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas expertise expertise imaginative thinking skills imaginative thinking skills venturesome personality venturesome personality intrinsic motivation intrinsic motivation creative environment creative environment

15 Origins of Intelligence Testing Stanford-Binet Stanford-Binet the widely used American revision of Binets original intelligence test the widely used American revision of Binets original intelligence test revised by Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised by Lewis Terman at Stanford University

16 Origins of Intelligence Testing Intelligence Test Intelligence Test a method of assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores a method of assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores

17 Alfred Binet (1857–1911) Intelligencecollection of higher- order mental abilities loosely related to one another Intelligencecollection of higher- order mental abilities loosely related to one another Intelligence is nurtured Intelligence is nurtured Binet-Simon Test developed in France, 1905 Binet-Simon Test developed in France, 1905 Origins of Intelligence Testing

18 Mental Age Mental Age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8 child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8

19 The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Constructed in the early 1900s by Alfred Binet Described four elements of intelligence Direction = the ability to work toward a goal Adaptability = making necessary adjustments to solve a problem Comprehension = understanding the basic problem Self-evaluation = knowing if the problem has been solved correctly

20 Items Used in the Stanford-Binet Test

21 Mental Age Chronological Age X 100 = I.Q. 7 7 X 100 = X 100 = Calculating I.Q. What is the I.Q. of a 16-year-old girl with a mental age of 20? 114 Examples:

22 Mental Age Chronological Age X 100 = I.Q. 7 7 X 100 = X 100 = Calculating I.Q. What is the I.Q. of a 16-year-old girl with a mental age of 20? = 12.5 X 100 = 125 Examples:

23 Are There Multiple Intelligences? Savant Syndrome Savant Syndrome condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill computation computation drawing drawing

24 Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? There is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brains neural processing speed. College students with unusually high levels of verbal intelligence are most likely to retrieve information from memory at an unusually rapid speed. There is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brains neural processing speed. College students with unusually high levels of verbal intelligence are most likely to retrieve information from memory at an unusually rapid speed.

25 Brain Size and Complexity Francis Galton-- phrenology. There is a slight correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score. Francis Galton-- phrenology. There is a slight correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score.

26 Brain Function and intelligence Highly intelligent people also tend to take in information more quickly and to show faster brain wave responses to simple stimuli such as a flashing of light. Continuous debate about the extent to which nature and nurture affect the brains structure and functioning. Highly intelligent people also tend to take in information more quickly and to show faster brain wave responses to simple stimuli such as a flashing of light. Continuous debate about the extent to which nature and nurture affect the brains structure and functioning.

27 Processing Speed Earl Hunt found that verbal intelligence scores are predictable from the speed with which people retrieve information from memory. Earl Hunt found that verbal intelligence scores are predictable from the speed with which people retrieve information from memory.

28 Perceptual Speed The correlation between intelligence score and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about +.4 to +.5. Those who perceive quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests, particularly tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving. The correlation between intelligence score and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about +.4 to +.5. Those who perceive quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests, particularly tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving.

29 Neurological Speed Repeated studies have found that highly intelligent peoples brain waves register a simple stimulus more quickly and with greater complexity. Repeated studies have found that highly intelligent peoples brain waves register a simple stimulus more quickly and with greater complexity. (New testing being done) (New testing being done)

30 Brain Function and Intelligence People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests Stimulus Mask Question: Long side on left or right?

31 Assessing Intelligence Aptitude Test Aptitude Test a test designed to predict a persons future performance a test designed to predict a persons future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn aptitude is the capacity to learn Achievement Test Achievement Test a test designed to assess what a person has learned a test designed to assess what a person has learned

32 Assessing Intelligence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) most widely used intelligence test most widely used intelligence test subtests subtests verbal verbal performance (nonverbal) performance (nonverbal)

33 Modern Intelligence Tests The Wechsler tests The Wechsler tests used more widely now than Stanford- Binet used more widely now than Stanford- Binet modeled after Binets, also made adult test modeled after Binets, also made adult test WISC-III for childrenWISC-III for children WAIS-III for adultsWAIS-III for adults

34 The Wechsler Intelligence Test David Wechsler (WEX-ler) devised a different intelligence test to measure real world intelligence. The first part of the test included verbal items like the Binet test. The second part was a nonverbal I.Q. test called a performance scale.

35 Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977 VERBAL General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span PERFORMANCE Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution

36 Assessing Intelligence Standardization Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group Normal Curve Normal Curve the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes

37 The Normal Curve

38 Getting Smarter? Flynn Effect

39 Assessing Intelligence Reliability Reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent results the extent to which a test yields consistent results assessed by consistency of scores on: assessed by consistency of scores on: two halves of the test two halves of the test alternate forms of the test alternate forms of the test retesting retesting Validity Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

40 Assessing Intelligence Content Validity Content Validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest driving test that samples driving tasks driving test that samples driving tasks Criterion Criterion behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity

41 Assessing Intelligence Predictive Validity Predictive Validity success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior also called criterion-related validity also called criterion-related validity

42 Assessing Intelligence As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes Greater correlation over broad range of body weights Little corre- lation within restricted range Football linemens success Body weight in pounds

43 The Dynamics of Intelligence Stability or Change? If a 6 month old seems to developing more slowly and is not as playful as other infants her age; this does not predict her late intelligence score. Intelligence scores are most likely to be stable over a 1-yr period for a 10th grade student whose intelligence test score is 95. After age 7, intelligence scores become more stable. Consistency of scores increase with the age of the child. Stability or Change? If a 6 month old seems to developing more slowly and is not as playful as other infants her age; this does not predict her late intelligence score. Intelligence scores are most likely to be stable over a 1-yr period for a 10th grade student whose intelligence test score is 95. After age 7, intelligence scores become more stable. Consistency of scores increase with the age of the child.

44 The Dynamics of Intelligence Mental Retardation Mental Retardation a condition of limited mental ability a condition of limited mental ability indicated by an intelligence score below 70 indicated by an intelligence score below 70 produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life varies from mild to profound varies from mild to profound Down Syndrome Down Syndrome retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in ones genetic makeup retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in ones genetic makeup

45 The Dynamics of Intelligence

46 Nature vs. Nurture in IQ Genetic Influences Are differences between people due to environmental or genetic differences? Are differences between people due to environmental or genetic differences? Misunderstanding the question Misunderstanding the question Is a persons intelligence due more to genes or to environment? Is a persons intelligence due more to genes or to environment? both genes & intelligence crucial for any trait both genes & intelligence crucial for any trait

47 Genetic Influences The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores

48 Genetic Influences Heritability Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes variability depends on range of populations and environments studied variability depends on range of populations and environments studied

49 Group Differences Group differences and environmental impact Group differences and environmental impact Variation within group Difference within group Poor soilFertile soil Seeds

50 Within and Between Group Differences Each corn field planted from same package of genetically diverse seeds Each corn field planted from same package of genetically diverse seeds One field is quite fertile, the other is not One field is quite fertile, the other is not Within each field, differences due to genetics Within each field, differences due to genetics Between each field, differences due to environment (fertility) Between each field, differences due to environment (fertility)

51 Genetic Influences

52 Environmental Influences Early Intervention Effects Early Intervention Effects If children are disadvantaged, malnutritioned, sensory deprived, or socially isolated, early intervention with responsive caregiving can help. However, if you are trying to give your baby extra instruction to create a superbaby, you are most likely wasting your time. Research indicates that Head Start programs are most beneficial to participants from disadvantaged home environments.

53 Environmental Influences The Schooling Effect The Schooling Effect Schooling itself is an intervention that pays dividends reflected in intelligence scores. Schooling and intelligence contribute to each other (and both enhance later income). High intelligence is conducive to prolonged schooling. Intelligence scores tend to rise during the school year and drop over the summer months. They decline when students schooling is discontinued.

54 Other Influences on IQ Scores Cross cultural studies show that average IQ of groups subject to social discrimination are often lower than socially dominant group even if there is no racial difference Cross cultural studies show that average IQ of groups subject to social discrimination are often lower than socially dominant group even if there is no racial difference Tests reflect the culture in which they are developed; cultural factors also influence test taking behavior (culture bias) Tests reflect the culture in which they are developed; cultural factors also influence test taking behavior (culture bias)

55 Issues in Intelligence Testing Individual vs. group testing: Group I.Q. testing can give fairly accurate results, but relies on verbal testing only. The average range of error in I.Q. scores is about seven points. The Supreme Court has ruled that I.Q. test results cannot determine placement of children in schools. Cultural bias in the creation of test questions may discriminate against minority populations.

56 Group Differences Intelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have helped limit reliance on educators subjectively biased judgments of students academic potential. Intelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have helped limit reliance on educators subjectively biased judgments of students academic potential.

57 Group Differences Ethnic Similarities and Differences Ethnic Similarities and Differences Racial groups differ in their average scores on intelligence tests. High- scoring people and groups are more likely to attain high levels of education and income.

58 Gender Differences Three people were hiking through a forest when they came upon a large, raging violent river. Needing to get on the other side, the first man prayed, "God, please give me the strength to cross the river." Poof! God gave him big arms and strong legs and he was able to swim across in about 2 hours, having almost drowned twice. After witnessing that, the second man prayed, "God, please give me strength and the tools to cross the river." Poof! God gave him a rowboat and strong arms and strong legs and he was able to row across in about an hour after almost capsizing once. Seeing what happened to the first two men, the third man prayed, "God, please give me the strength, the tools and the intelligence to cross river." Poof! He was turned into a woman. She checked the map, hiked one hundred yards up stream and walked across the bridge.

59 Group Differences Gender Similarities & Differences Gender Similarities & Differences Girls are better spellers: at the high end of high school, only 30% of males spell better than the average female. Boys outnumber girls at the low extremes. Boys tend to talk later and stutter more often. In remedial reading classes, boys outnumber girls three to one. In high school, underachieving boys outnumber girls by two to one.

60 Group Differences Math & Spatial Aptitudes Math & Spatial Aptitudes In math grades, the average girl typically equals or surpasses the average boy. And on math tests given to 3 million people, males and females obtained nearly identical scores. Although females have an edge in math computation, males in various cultures score high in math problem solving. Traditionally, math and science have been considered masculine subjects. Females are pushed more toward English.

61 Group Differences Emotional-Detecting Ability Emotional-Detecting Ability Women are better at detecting emotions than men. The Question of Bias The Question of Bias Most experts would agree that intelligence tests are biased in the sense that test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.

62 Racial Difference in IQ Racial difference in average IQ among different racial groups can be measured Racial difference in average IQ among different racial groups can be measured More variation in IQ scores within a particular group than between groups More variation in IQ scores within a particular group than between groups

63 Group Differences Stereotype Threat Stereotype Threat A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype


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