Presentation on theme: "I believe the answer to the problem is . . ."— Presentation transcript:
1 I believe the answer to the problem is . . . Understanding IntelligenceI believe the answer to the problem is . . .Psychologists define intelligence as the ability to understand and adapt to the environment using a combination of inherited abilities and learned experiences.Problem with “reification”-viewing an abstract, immaterial concept s if it were a concrete thing.
2 Francis Galton Started the “Eugenics” movement Galton (1883) wanted to breed superiorpeople and create a master race.
3 What is Intelligence? Factor Analysis General Intelligence (g) statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a testused to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total scoreGeneral Intelligence (g)factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilitiesmeasured by every task on an intelligence test
4 Charles Spearman – was the “spearhead” in the development of intelligence theories with factor analysis and his “g” general intelligence theory.
5 Theories of Intelligence Charles Spearman—“g” factorLouis Thurstone—intelligence as a person’s “pattern” of mental abilities( 7 clusters:word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatialability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory)Howard Gardner—multiple intelligencesSternberg–triarchic theory
6 Theories of Intelligence Charles Spearman—“g” factorLouis Thurstone—intelligence as a person’s “pattern” of mental abilitiesHoward Gardner—multiple intelligencesSternberg–triarchic theoryCantor, Kihlstrom-social intelligenceSlovey, Mayer, Goleman-emotional intelligence
7 Are Gifted People Easily Identified? You have been asked to select a student, based on the three biographies below, to enroll in a new program for gifted students. Look over the three biographies and decide which student you would choose.Candidate 1 Candidate 2 Candidate 3Name Bill Brown Alvin Lane Allen EricksonAppearance Average Plain HomelyI.QSchool Behavior Aloof, Organizer Well-liked Unsociable, disturbedPhysical Health Excellent Large for age SicklyEmotional Health Excellent Easygoing, poor self-concept Had emotional breakdownInterests Chess, Math Sports, reading, telling jokes Withdraws to fantasy worldCareer Goals None mentioned Work in a retail store None mentionedPersonal Goals None mentioned Businessman Independence from familyTalents Photographic Good debater Plays violin, likes to read memory, published alone.original math formulaat age 10Which student did you select and why?
10 Robert SternbergCreative intelligence— ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledgeAnalytic intelligence— mental processes used in learning how to solve problemsPractical intelligence— ability to adapt to the environment (street smarts)THINKING “CAP”
11 Are There Multiple Intelligences? Social Intelligencethe know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfullyEmotional Intelligenceability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
12 Daniel Goleman’s Theory of Emotional Intelligence The ability to feel, deal with, and recognize emotions makes up its own kind of intelligence.Aspects of this theory include:Emotional self-awareness: knowing what we are feeling and whyManaging and harnessing emotions: knowing how to control and respond to feelings appropriatelyEmpathy: knowing what another person is feeling
13 CreativityIntelligence and creativity are somewhat, but not closely, related. People who are creative tend to excel in one area. One measure of creativity is the ability to break set, or think about something in an entirely new way to problem solve.
14 Intelligence and Creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideasexpertiseimaginative thinking skillsventuresome personalityintrinsic motivationcreative environment
15 Origins of Intelligence Testing Stanford-Binetthe widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence testrevised by Lewis Terman at Stanford University
16 Origins of Intelligence Testing a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores
17 Origins of Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet (1857–1911)Intelligence—collection of higher-order mental abilities loosely related to one anotherIntelligence is nurturedBinet-Simon Test developed in France, 1905
18 Origins of Intelligence Testing Mental Agea measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binetchronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performancechild who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8
19 The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Constructed in the early 1900s by Alfred BinetDescribed four elements of intelligenceDirection = the ability to work toward a goalAdaptability = making necessary adjustments to solve a problemComprehension = understanding the basic problemSelf-evaluation = knowing if the problem has been solved correctly
21 I.Q. Calculating I.Q. Mental Age I.Q. X 100 = Chronological Age 7 Examples:X 100 =10078X 100 =1147What is the I.Q. of a 16-year-old girl with a mental age of 20?
22 I.Q. Calculating I.Q. Mental Age I.Q. X 100 = Chronological Age 7 Examples:X 100 =10078X 100 =1147What is the I.Q. of a 16-year-old girl with a mental age of 20?2016= X 100 = 125
23 Are There Multiple Intelligences? Savant Syndromecondition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skillcomputationdrawing
24 Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? There is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brain’s neural processing speed. College students with unusually high levels of verbal intelligence are most likely to retrieve information from memory at an unusually rapid speed.
25 Brain Size and Complexity Francis Galton-- phrenology. There is a slight correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score.
26 Brain Function and intelligence Highly intelligent people also tend to take in information more quickly and to show faster brain wave responses to simple stimuli such as a flashing of light. Continuous debate about the extent to which nature and nurture affect the brain’s structure and functioning.
27 Processing SpeedEarl Hunt found that verbal intelligence scores are predictable from the speed with which people retrieve information from memory.
28 Perceptual SpeedThe correlation between intelligence score and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about +.4 to +.5. Those who perceive quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests, particularly tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving.
29 Neurological SpeedRepeated studies have found that highly intelligent people’s brain waves register a simple stimulus more quickly and with greater complexity.(New testing being done)
30 Brain Function and Intelligence People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence testsStimulusMaskQuestion: Long side on left or right?
31 Assessing Intelligence Aptitude Testa test designed to predict a person’s future performanceaptitude is the capacity to learnAchievement Testa test designed to assess what a person has learned
33 Modern Intelligence Tests The Wechsler testsused more widely now than Stanford-Binetmodeled after Binet’s, also made adult testWISC-III for childrenWAIS-III for adults
34 The Wechsler Intelligence Test David Wechsler (WEX-ler) devised a different intelligence test to measure “real world” intelligence.The first part of the test included verbal items like the Binet test.The second part was a nonverbal I.Q. test called a performance scale.
35 Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977VERBALGeneral InformationSimilaritiesArithmetic ReasoningVocabularyComprehensionDigit SpanPERFORMANCEPicture CompletionPicture ArrangementBlock DesignObject AssemblyDigit-Symbol Substitution
36 Assessing Intelligence Standardizationdefining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”Normal Curvethe symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributesmost scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
39 Assessing Intelligence Reliabilitythe extent to which a test yields consistent resultsassessed by consistency of scores on:two halves of the testalternate forms of the testretestingValiditythe extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
40 Assessing Intelligence Content Validitythe extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interestdriving test that samples driving tasksCriterionbehavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predictthe measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
41 Assessing Intelligence Predictive Validitysuccess with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predictassessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavioralso called criterion-related validity
42 Assessing Intelligence Greater correlationover broad rangeof body weights10987654321Little corre-lation withinrestrictedrangeFootball linemen’ssuccessBody weight in poundsAs the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes
43 The Dynamics of Intelligence Stability or Change? If a 6 month old seems to developing more slowly and is not as playful as other infants her age; this does not predict her late intelligence score. Intelligence scores are most likely to be stable over a 1-yr period for a 10th grade student whose intelligence test score is 95. After age 7, intelligence scores become more stable. Consistency of scores increase with the age of the child.
44 The Dynamics of Intelligence Mental Retardationa condition of limited mental abilityindicated by an intelligence score below 70produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of lifevaries from mild to profoundDown Syndromeretardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup
46 Nature vs. Nurture in IQ Genetic Influences Are differences between people due to environmental or genetic differences?Misunderstanding the question“Is a person’s intelligence due more to genes or to environment?”both genes & intelligence crucial for any traitClearly, IQ is not the only psychological construct for which this debate applies, and instructors may wish to take a moment to name the other areas (i.e., personality, mental disorders, etc.) for which heritability is hotly debated.
47 Genetic InfluencesThe most genetically similar people have the most similar scores
48 Genetic Influences Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genesvariability depends on range of populations and environments studied
49 Variation within group Difference within group Group DifferencesGroup differences and environmental impactVariation within groupDifference within groupPoor soilFertile soilSeeds
50 Within and Between Group Differences Each corn field planted from same package of genetically diverse seedsOne field is quite fertile, the other is notWithin each field, differences due to geneticsBetween each field, differences due to environment (fertility)
52 Environmental Influences Early Intervention EffectsIf children are disadvantaged, malnutritioned, sensory deprived, or socially isolated, early intervention with responsive caregiving can help. However, if you are trying to give your baby extra instruction to create a “superbaby”, you are most likely wasting your time.Research indicates that Head Start programs are most beneficial to participants from disadvantaged home environments.
53 Environmental Influences The Schooling EffectSchooling itself is an intervention that pays dividends reflected in intelligence scores. Schooling and intelligence contribute to each other (and both enhance later income). High intelligence is conducive to prolonged schooling. Intelligence scores tend to rise during the school year and drop over the summer months. They decline when students’ schooling is discontinued.
54 Other Influences on IQ Scores Cross cultural studies show that average IQ of groups subject to social discrimination are often lower than socially dominant group even if there is no racial differenceTests reflect the culture in which they are developed; cultural factors also influence test taking behavior (culture bias)
55 Issues in Intelligence Testing Individual vs. group testing: Group I.Q. testing can give fairly accurate results, but relies on verbal testing only.The average range of error in I.Q. scores is about seven points.The Supreme Court has ruled that I.Q. test results cannot determine placement of children in schools.Cultural bias in the creation of test questions may discriminate against minority populations.
56 Group DifferencesIntelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have helped limit reliance on educators’ subjectively biased judgments of students’ academic potential.
57 Group Differences Ethnic Similarities and Differences Racial groups differ in their average scores on intelligence tests. High-scoring people and groups are more likely to attain high levels ofeducation and income.
58 Gender DifferencesThree people were hiking through a forest when they came upon a large, raging violent river.Needing to get on the other side, the first man prayed, "God, please give me the strength to cross the river."Poof! God gave him big arms and strong legs and he was able to swim across in about 2 hours, having almost drowned twice.After witnessing that, the second man prayed, "God, please give me strength and the tools to cross the river."Poof! God gave him a rowboat and strong arms and strong legs and he was able to row across in about an hour after almost capsizing once.Seeing what happened to the first two men, the third man prayed, "God, please give me the strength, the tools and the intelligence to cross river."Poof! He was turned into a woman. She checked the map, hiked one hundred yards up stream and walked across the bridge.
59 Group Differences Gender Similarities & Differences Girls are better spellers: at the high end of high school, only 30% of males spell better than the average female. Boys outnumber girls at the low extremes. Boys tend to talk later and stutter more often. In remedial reading classes, boys outnumber girls three to one. In high school, underachieving boys outnumber girls by two to one.
60 Group Differences Math & Spatial Aptitudes In math grades, the average girl typically equals or surpasses the average boy. And on math tests given to 3 million people, males and females obtained nearly identical scores. Although females have an edge in math computation, males in various cultures score high in math problem solving. Traditionally, math and science have been considered masculine subjects. Females are pushed more toward English.
61 Group Differences Emotional-Detecting Ability Women are better at detecting emotions than men.The Question of BiasMost experts would agree that intelligence tests are “biased” in the sense that test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.
62 Racial Difference in IQ Racial difference in average IQ among different racial groups can be measuredMore variation in IQ scores within a particular group than between groups
63 Group Differences Stereotype Threat A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype