Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 6 Learning. Table of Contents Classical conditioning Learning –relatively durable change in an organisms behavior due to experience Ivan Pavlov.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Learning. Table of Contents Classical conditioning Learning –relatively durable change in an organisms behavior due to experience Ivan Pavlov."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Learning

2 Table of Contents Classical conditioning Learning –relatively durable change in an organisms behavior due to experience Ivan Pavlov Terminology –Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) –Conditioned Stimulus (CS) –Unconditioned Response (UCR) –Conditioned Response (CR)

3 Table of Contents






9 Classical Conditioning: More Terminology Trial = pairing of UCS and CS Acquisition = initial stage in learning Stimulus contiguity = occurring together in time and space 3 types of Classical Conditioning –Simultaneous conditioning: CS and UCS begin and end together –Short-delayed conditioning: CS begins just before the UCS, end together –Trace conditioning: CS begins and ends before UCS is presented

10 Table of Contents Processes in Classical Conditioning Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Generalization Discrimination Higher-order conditioning

11 Table of Contents


13 Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today

14 Table of Contents Watson & Raynor with Little Albert Watson took a a baby named Albert and conditioned him to be afraid of white furry objects using Pavlovs techniques.

15 Table of Contents

16 Conditioned fear experiments such as Alberts experience would never occur today because of the existing ethical standards. Conditional Training: Little Albert

17 Table of Contents

18 Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Learning Edward L. Thorndike (1913) – the law of effect B.F. Skinner (1953) – principle of reinforcement –Operant chamber (Skinner Box) –Emission of response –Reinforcement contingencies –Cumulative recorder

19 Table of Contents


21 Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning Acquisition Shaping Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Control –Generalization –Discrimination

22 Table of Contents


24 Reinforcement: Consequences that Strengthen Responses Delayed Reinforcement –Longer delay, slower conditioning Primary Reinforcers –Satisfy biological needs Secondary Reinforcers –Conditioned reinforcement

25 Table of Contents Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement – faster extinction Intermittent (partial) reinforcement – greater resistance to extinction Ratio schedules (number) –Fixed (set) –Variable (random) Interval schedules (time) –Fixed –Variable

26 Table of Contents

27 Consequences: Reinforcement and Punishment Increasing a response: –Positive (+) reinforcement = response followed by rewarding stimulus (Give them something they want, ie a candy bar) –Negative (-) reinforcement = response followed by removal of an aversive stimulus (Take away something that is annoying/bothering/hurting them, ie nagging, seat belt tone) Escape learning (open umbrella after youre wet) Avoidance learning (open umbrella before it rains) Decreasing a response: –Positive Punishment = presentation of an aversive stimulus (give them something they do not want, ie detention, fine –Negative Punishment = removal of a rewarding stimulus (take away something they want, ie cell phone, car

28 Table of Contents Punishment

29 Table of Contents



32 Problems with Punishment - (Spanking) Does not teach or promote alternative, acceptable behavior May produce undesirable results such as hostility, passivity, fear Likely to be temporary May model aggression (Bandura Bobo doll experiment)

33 Table of Contents

34 Biological Predispositions John Garcia Conditioned taste aversions Not all neutral stimuli can become conditioned stimuli. Internal stimuliassociate better with taste External stimuliassociate better with pain Biological preparedness

35 Table of Contents Changes in Our Understanding of Conditioning Biological Constraints on Conditioning –Instinctive Drift –Conditioned Taste Aversion –Preparedness and Phobias Cognitive Influences on Conditioning –Signal relations – predicive value based on experience –Response-outcome relations – causal relationship Cognitive processes play a large role in conditioning

36 Table of Contents Signal Relations Robert Rescorla conducted research around the cognitive element in conditioning Environmental stimuli serve as signals Some stimuli are better and more dependable signals than others Rescorla manipulated signal relations in classical conditioning

37 Table of Contents Signal Relations (ii) CS-UCS relations influence whether a CS is a good signal A good signal is one that follows accurate prediction of the UCS For one group of rats the CS (tone) and UCS (shock) are paired in 100% of the experimental trials Example: For another group the CS and UCS are paired in only 50% of the trials

38 Table of Contents The predictive value of CS The predictive value of a CS is an influential factor governing classical conditioning The two groups of rats have had an equal number of CS-UCS pairings CS is a better signal or predictor of shock for the 100% CS- UCS group than for the 50% CS-UCS group This difference must be due to the greater predictive power of the CS for the 100% group

39 Table of Contents Response-Outcome Relations and Reinforcement Response-outcome relations and reinforcement highlight the role of cognitive processes in conditioning Reinforcement is not automatic when favourable consequences follow a response Individuals actively reason out the relation between responses and the outcomes that follow The response is more likely to be strengthened if the person thinks that the response caused the outcome

40 Table of Contents Response-Outcome Relations and Reinforcement (ii) Animals also engage in causal reasoning They recognise causal relations between responses and outcomes Stimuli are viewed as signals that help animals minimize their aversive experiences and maximize their pleasant experiences Identifying the contingencies among environmental events

41 Table of Contents Observational Learning: Basic Processes Albert Bandura (1977, 1986) –Observational learning –Vicarious conditioning 4 key processes –attention –retention –reproduction –motivation acquisition vs. performance Latent learning Cognitive maps Learned helplessness

42 Table of Contents Observational Learning Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

43 Table of Contents 1)paid 10 dollars for every 20 puzzles solved 2)studying for a class that has surprise quizzes 3)______________________ slot machines are based on this schedule 4)________________________ trolling for fish in a lake in the summer 5)speed traps on highways 6)_______________________ selling a product door to door 7)getting the clothes out of the dryer once it buzzes 8)going up a staircase to reach a landing with a nice view 9)______________________ doing 20 pushups to help stay fit

44 Table of Contents 10)_____ playing Bingo 11)______getting a paycheck at the end of 2 weeks 12)_______drug testing 13)________a strike in bowling 14)calling your mechanic to see if your car is fixed yet 15) frequent flyer program where one gets a free flight after a specific number of miles flown

45 Table of Contents 16)_______________________ child screams and cries in store to get what he wantsevery so often it works 17)______________________ child who likes to hear theme music from Jeopardy every night at 7 pm 18)trying to find a parking spot in Metropolis with a meter that works 19)_______________________ wife is watching boxing match with husband- she receives a kiss at the end of every 3-minute round 20)______________________ waiting for a sunny day to go to the beach

46 Table of Contents



Download ppt "Chapter 6 Learning. Table of Contents Classical conditioning Learning –relatively durable change in an organisms behavior due to experience Ivan Pavlov."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google