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Indicators for a Knowledge-Based Economy

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1 Indicators for a Knowledge-Based Economy
Belgrade, 2 October 2008 Indicators for a Knowledge-Based Economy The OECD perspective Martin Schaaper OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Economic Analysis and Statistics Division


3 Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry
Economic Analysis and Statistics Science and Technology Policy Information, Communication and Computer Policy Biotechnology Structural Policy Division

4 EAS: how we work Data Analysis Methodology EAS mode of working
Interacting, decision makers need indicators to underpin policies  Data collection  Need collection guidelines and (international) harmonisation  methodologies  improved data collection analysis EAS does all of this  takes advantage of all the arrows in the slide Examples (fly in): Methodology: Frascati Manual Data collection: MSTI Analysis: Scoreboard Analysis Methodology

5 S&T: a linear model? The model Indicators Basic research
Applied research Development Production and diffusion The model Indicators Inputs (R&D expenditure, Human Resources) Black Box (innovation) Output (patents, publications, high-tech products)

6 A systems approach Innovation is dynamic and complex:
Many actors, many linkages Feedback and feed-forward loops  innovation is non-linear

7 Evidence-based policy making

8 The Scoreboard: an integrated view
C. Innovation policy A. R&D B. HRST D. Innovation performance F. Particular technologies E. ICT G. Internationalisation of S&T H. Global economic flows I. Productivity and trade

9 A. Research and Development
First edition published in 1963! Sixth edition published in 2002 Data also collected since 1963

10 Highlights of the 5th Frascati Manual revision
Improved methodological guidelines Update various classifications R&D in service sectors Human resources for R&D Survey methods business enterprise sector GBAORD Globalisation and links to SNA (capitalisation of R&D!) Annexes on health, ICT and biotechnology NESTI Forty years first release of the Frascati manual Series of other manuals on the measurement of innovation (the Oslo manual developed jointly with Eurostat), technology balance of payments, patenting and human resources in science and technology (the Canberra manual). : Fifth revision of the Frascati Manual: the need to update various classifications and an increasing need for data on R&D in the services sector, on the globalisation of R&D and on human resources for R&D. No substantial changes of the recommendations, but a strengthening bring R&D statistics closer to the National Accounts The revised Manual was accepted by NESTI in June 2002 and adopted by the CSTP in October 2002. Main changes/improvements in the sixth edition Improved methodological guidelines (e.g. on basic research, use of the product field classification in the business enterprise sector, at least for ISIC Rev. 3, Division 73) R&D in service sectors, including examples Improving information on human resources for R&D (age and gender breakdowns, more data in headcounts): HC data allow links to other data series (education, employment censuses). This is particularly important when examining the role of R&D employment in total stocks and flows of scientific and technical personnel. HC also most appropriate measure for age, gender or national origin. Needed for analytical studies and implement recruitment or other S&T policies aimed at reducing gender imbalances, shortages of personnel or the effects of ageing, “brain drain”, etc. There is an increasing demand from S&T policy makers for such data. Survey methods in the business enterprise sector (the enterprise as the main statistical unit; known R&D performers + sample of rest) GBAORD (list of possible sources of budgetary data for GBAORD, which sources should be selected; how to treat multi-annual projects; how to treat GBAORD going to R&D abroad; NABS adopted. Adjustments in order to improve the understanding of globalisation and the links with the system of national accounts (e.g. software acquisitions have been added as an investment item in line with the new SNA). New experimental guidelines of measuring R&D in specific fields of interest (health, ICT, biotechnology) Updates of main classifications (ISCED, ISIC rev. 3.1)

11 Definition of R&D Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

12 Exclusions from R&D Education and training
Other science and technology activities Other industrial activities Administration and other supporting activities Education and training: but PhD research included Other science and technology activities: S&T information services, general purpose data collection, testing, feasibility studies, patent and licence work, policy related studies, routine software development Other industrial activities: (many innovation) acquisition of technology, tooling up, industrial engineering, design, production start up Administration and other supporting activities

13 Intramural R&D expenditure
By sector of performance (BES, HE, GOV, PNP) By source of funds (same plus abroad) By type of activity (BR, AR, ED) By type of cost (current and capital) By field of science (nat sc, eng & techn, med sc, agri sc, soc sc, hum) By socio-economic objective (~ NABS)

14 Business Expenditure on R&D
BERD by industry (NACE/ISIC) Main activity Product field ISIC 73 BERD by size-class

15 Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays for R&D (GBAORD)
Exploration and exploitation of the earth Environment Exploration and exploitation of space Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures Energy Industrial production and technology Health Agriculture Education Culture, recreation religion and mass media Political and social systems, structures and processes General advancement of knowledge: GUF General advancement of knowledge: non-GUF Defence NABS

16 R&D Personnel In headcounts and full-time equivalents
By sector of employment By occupation (researchers, technicians, oss) By qualification (ISCED) By field of science By industry By sex By age-group

17 R&D intensity, 2005

18 R&D intensity in non-OECD countries, 2005

19 Annual average growth rate of GERD, 2000-05

20 R&D expenditure by sector of performance, 2005

21 B. Human Resources for Science and Technology (HRST)
The Measurement of Human Resources Devoted to Science and Technology – Canberra Manual (1995) The CM is part of the Frascati family Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH)

22 Dimensions of HRST Skills Qualifications Mobility

23 Definition of HRST (Canberra Manual)
HRST are people who fulfil one or other of the following conditions: a) successfully completed education at the third level in an S&T field of study; b) not formally qualified as above, but employed in a S&T occupation where the above qualifications are normally required.

24 Definition of HRST (cont.)
Education ISCED Level 5- First stage of tertiary education (not leading directly to an advanced research qualification) ISCED 5A: theoretically based/research preparatory or giving access to professions with high skills requirements ISCED 5B: practical/technical/occupationally specific ISCED Level 6- Second stage of tertiary education (leading to an advanced research qualification)

25 Definition of HRST (cont.)
Occupation A subset of ISCO Major Group 1: Legislators, senior officials and managers Usually ignored! ISCO Major Group 2: Professionals ISCO Major Group 3: Technicians And Associate Professionals A subset of Major Group 1: Legislators, senior officials and managers: 122 Production and Operations Department Managers 123 Other Department Managers 131 General Managers Major Group 2: Professionals 21 Physical, Mathematical and Engineering Science Professionals 22 Life Science and Health Professionals 23 Teaching Professionals 24 Other Professionals Major Group 3: Technicians And Associate Professionals Same breakdown as 2 31 Physical and Engineering Science Associate Professionals 32 Life Science and Health Associate Professionals 33 Teaching Associate Professionals 34 Other Associate Professionals

26 HRST according to the CM

27 Fields of study Natural sciences Engineering and technology
NSE Natural sciences Engineering and technology Medical sciences Agricultural sciences Social sciences Humanities Other fields

28 National stocks and flows of HRST

29 International mobility of HRST
Definitions Place of birth vs. citizenship Measurement problems Migration and qualification Data often not comparable between countries Migration outflows Relevant for many non-OECD countries Very little detailed information

30 Sources for HRST Education databases Labour force surveys
Population registers Censuses National administrative systems for regulating and monitoring immigration Administrative systems relating to temporary residence or work permits for non-nationals Specific surveys

31 Graduation rates at doctoral level, 2004 (% of relevant age cohort)

32 Science and engineering degrees, 2004 (% of total)

33 Tertiary-level graduates in total employment, 2004 (as a % of total)

34 Researchers per 1000 employment, 2005

35 Researchers per 1000 employment in non-OECD economies, 2005

36 Educational attainment in non-OECD economies, 2004

37 Students from non-OECD economies enrolled in OECD countries, 2004

38 Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH)
A joint OECD/Eurostat/UNESCO project launched by the OECD Secretariat in 2004 An expert group of 40 countries among which the United States, Japan, China, India, Argentina, Uganda and many European countries A three-component package developed by the expert group: output tabulations, methodological guidelines and a model survey questionnaire Un projet conjoint OCDE/Eurostat/UNESCO lancé par le Secrétariat de l’OCDE en 2004 Un groupe d’experts de 30 pays parmi lesquels les États-Unis, le Japon, la Chine, l’Inde, l’Argentine, l’Ouganda et de nombreux pays européens La construction de trois éléments : des tableaux d’indicateurs de résultats, des lignes directrices, un questionnaire d’enquête Une première collecte de données en septembre 2005  données pour l’Australie, le Canada, l’Allemagne, la Suisse et les États-Unis


40 Output tabulations

41 Methodological guidelines
1. Introduction 2. Purpose of statistics on CDH 3. The target population 4. Survey methodology 5. Collecting and processing of data 6. Estimation of results and data quality 7. Data transmission

42 CDH data collection First collection in 2005 for 7 countries
Second collection launched mid-November 2007 Data received for 22 countries: 20 European countries + Australia + US Data for Canada, Croatia and Malta still pending; new version of Australian data based on the 2006 census to be included; two data series for Italy Other: Japan? Non-OECD countries?

43 Data sources, coverage, limitations
4 types of data sources used: Dedicated CDH surveys (census or sample) Register data (Nordic countries) Other established surveys (census and LFS) A combination of the above Higher response rates for CDH sample surveys (> 50%) than for census surveys Good coverage of the target population some difficulties with coverage of foreign doctorate holders

44 Sex-breakdown of doctorate holders

45 Active DH as a % of total labour force

46 Citizenship and residential status of foreign-born DH

47 DH having received their doctorate abroad

48 Ten top countries of previous residence of national DH having lived abroad
Austria Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Iceland Slovakia Spain Sweden 1 US Germany 2 France UK 3 Czech Rep. China 4 Netherlands Australia 5 Italy Iran 6 Canada Norway 7 Switzerland Japan Portugal Poland 8 Argentina 9 Finland 10 Mexico Russia

49 CDH conclusions The first results of the 2005 CDH data collection give interesting insights on the situation of doctorate holders in five countries Progress in the measurement of international mobility by cross-classifying place of birth and citizenship with residential status, length of stay in the country and other variables Les premiers résultats de la collecte de données donnent des informations intéressantes quant à la situation des titulaires de doctorats dans cinq pays Permet des progrès dans la mesure de la mobilité internationale par le croisement des informations sur le lieu de naissance et la nationalité avec le statut au regard de la résidence, la durée de séjour dans le pays et d’autres variables. Apporte une valeur ajoutée importante en introduisant le recueil d’information plus qualitative sur la perception et les intentions des titulaires de doctorats quant à leur emploi et leur mobilité internationale

50 CDH conclusions (cont.)
Important value added by introducing the collection of more qualitative information on the perception and plans of doctoral graduates regarding their employment and international mobility Such qualitative indicators are extremely useful to help understanding the complex patterns of international mobility that cannot only be gauged through quantitative data because of the heterogeneity of migration systems across countries Ces informations qualitatives sont extrêmement utiles pour la compréhension de modèles complexes de mobilité internationale qui ne peuvent être appréhendés uniquement par les données quantitatives en raison de l’hétérogénéité des systèmes de migration parmi les pays

51 International conference on the Careers and Mobility of Doctorate Holders
1st December in Brussels Joint OECD/UIS/Eurostat event with support of EC DG Research The conference will serve as a forum to diffuse and discuss the results with interested stakeholders, academics and policy makers

52 International conference on the Careers and Mobility of Doctorate Holders
Programme is under discussion, list of topics: Doctoral and research training Human resources in research The labour market of doctorate holders The international mobility of doctorate holders

53 C. Innovation policy Public-private cross-funding of R&D
Government R&D budgets Tax treatment of R&D Patenting by universities and government Collaboration with public research organisations by innovating firms Science linkages in technology Entrepreneurship

54 Defence and civil R&D budgets (GBAORD), 2006, as a % of GDP

55 Rate of tax subsidies for USD 1 of R&D, 2007 (%)

56 D. Innovation performance
Patents Bibliometrics Innovation

57 Patents Indicators of invention
Administrative data containing much information Data widely available, e.g. in PATSTAT (EPO) Drawbacks Not all inventions are patented Value distribution skewed

58 Patent Statistics Task Force
OECD Eurostat European Patent Office (EPO) Japan Patent Office (JPO) US National Science Foundation (NSF) US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

59 The Patent Manual 2008 Part of the Frascati family
Major revision of the 1994 Manual Provides background information to understand the patent process Proposes standards for compiling indicators

60 Contents of the Patent Manual
Introduction Patents as statistical indicators of S&T Patent systems and procedures Counting patents for conducting international comparison Technical and economic classifications of patents The use and analysis of citations Indicators of internationalisation Indicators of patent value

61 Recent work Regional patents Standardising patent holders’ names

62 Trends in triadic patent families

63 Triadic patent families per million population, 2005

64 Any questions? Or is it already time for the coffee break?

65 Innovation: the Oslo Manual
Jointly with the EC Part of the Frascati family Used for CIS and national innovation surveys 1st edition 1992 2nd edition 1997  coverage expanded to services 3rd edition 2005  including non-technological innovation

66 Innovation definition
An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations

67 The innovation measurement framework

68 Innovation main concepts
Technological Product Goods Services Process Non-technological Marketing Organisational

69 Technological innovation
A product innovation is the introduction of a good or service that is new or significantly improved with respect to its characteristics or intended uses. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, incorporated software, user friendliness or other functional characteristics. A process innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved production or delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software.

70 Non-technological innovation
A marketing innovation is the implementation of a new marketing method involving significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing An organisational innovation is the implementation of a new organisational method in the firm’s business practices, workplace organisation or external relations

71 More definitions (1) Innovation activities are all scientific, technological, organisational, financial and commercial steps which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of innovations. Some innovation activities are themselves innovative, others are not novel activities but are necessary for the implementation of innovations. Innovation activities also include R&D that is not directly related to the development of a specific innovation.

72 More definitions (2) An innovative firm is one that has implemented an innovation during the period under review. A product‑process innovative firm is one that has implemented a new or significantly improved product or process during the period under review.

73 More definitions (3) Type of innovation: successful, unsuccessful, ongoing Degree of novelty: technologically new / significantly improved/disruptive Approach: “subject” vs. “object” Degree of novelty: technologically new / significantly improved Focus: business enterprise sector

74 Innovation activities for product and process innovations
Intramural (in-house) R&D Acquisition of R&D (extramural R&D) Acquisition of other external knowledge Acquisition of machinery, equipment and other capital goods Other preparations for product and process innovations Market preparations for product innovations Training

75 Innovation data Objectives of innovation
Factors assisting/hampering innovation Expenditure on innovation Impacts and outcomes Linkages

76 In-house product innovators by size (as a % of all firms), 2002-04

77 In-house process innovators by sector (as a % of all firms), 2002-04

78 Share of turnover due to new-to-market product innovations by size (as a % of turnover), 2002-04

79 Non-technological innovators by sector (as a % of all firms), 2002-04

80 E. ICT OECD Guide to Measuring the Information Society
OECD definition of the ICT sector OECD classification of ICT products Model survey of ICT use in households and by individuals Model survey of ICT use by businesses OECD definitions of Internet and e-commerce transactions Impacts Annex for developing countries WPIIS started in 1997, building blocks approach, main methodological achievements: Activity-based ICT sector definition: combination of manufacturing and services industries that capture, transmit and display data and information electronically. ISIC Rev 3.1 Under revision to update to ISIC rev 4 ICT goods classification: six-digit HS 2002 categories, grouped into the following broad categories: telecommunications equipment, computer and related equipment, electronic components, audio and video equipment and other ICT goods. Under revision to move to CPC ver 2 ICT services: accepted two weeks ago. Based on CPC ver 2 Narrower and broader definitions of electronic commerce transactions, Model surveys of ICT usage in businesses and in households/by individuals (revised) Work in progress: trust in online environments (security, privacy, consumer protection), electronic business, ICT investment, electronic content and digital delivery, spam and skills. Also, impacts on the economy. Guide

81 Households with broadband access, 2000-06 (%)

82 Individuals using the Internet from any location, 2006 (%)

83 Broadband penetration by size class, 2006
Broadband penetration by size class, As a % of businesses with 10 or more employees

84 Percentage of enterprises' total turnover from e-commerce, 2003-06 (%)

85 Trade in ICT goods as a % of total trade

86 Business R&D expenditure by selected ICT manufacturing industries, as a % of GDP

87 F. Particular technologies
Biotechnology Nanotechnology Environmental science

88 Biotechnology A series of ad-hoc meetings of a NESTI spin-off group
A framework for biotechnology statistics (2005) Definitions Model survey of biotechnology use and development Classifications OECD biotechnology statistics

89 The single definition of biotechnology
The application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or non-living materials for the production of knowledge, goods and services.

90 The list-based definition of biotechnology technoques
DNA/RNA: Genomics, pharmacogenomics, gene probes, genetic engineering, DNA/RNA sequencing/ synthesis/amplification, gene expression profiling, and use of antisense technology. Proteins and other molecules: Sequencing/synthesis/engineering of proteins and peptides (including large molecule hormones); improved delivery methods for large molecule drugs; proteomics, protein isolation and purification, signaling, identification of cell receptors. Cell and tissue culture and engineering: Cell/tissue culture, tissue engineering (including tissue scaffolds and biomedical engineering), cellular fusion, vaccine/immune stimulants, embryo manipulation. Process biotechnology techniques: Fermentation using bioreactors, bioprocessing, bioleaching, biopulping, biobleaching, biodesulphurisation, bioremediation, biofiltration and phytoremediation. Gene and RNA vectors: Gene therapy, viral vectors. Bioinformatics: Construction of databases on genomes, protein sequences; modelling complex biological processes, including systems biology. Nanobiotechnology: Applies the tools and processes of nano/microfabrication to build devices for studying biosystems and applications in drug delivery, diagnostics, etc.

91 Other relevant definitions
Biotechnology product Biotechnology process Biotechnology active firm (enterprise) Dedicated biotechnology firm Innovative biotechnology firm Biotechnology R&D Biotechnology sales/revenue Biotechnology expenses

92 Biotechnology statistics & indicators
Biotechnology products and processes Biotechnology R&D Biotechnology firms by type (dedicated, innovative) Biotechnology sales/revenue Biotechnology expenses Biotechnology employment Biotechnology patents

93 Recommended biotechnology R&D question
Did the R&D reported above include any biotechnology R&D (see definitions)? Yes / No If yes, please provide an estimate of the share of the total intramural R&D expenditure reported earlier that is attributable to biotechnology ________%

94 Number of firms active in biotechnology, 2003

95 Total expenditures on biotechnology R&D by biotech-active firms, millions of USD PPP

96 Biotechnology patents as a % of national total (PCT filings), 2002-04

97 G. Internationalisation of S&T
Foreign ownership of domestic inventions Domestic ownership of inventions made abroad International co-operation in research Sources of R&D funding from abroad International collaboration in science Internationalisation of R&D Foreign collaboration on innovation

98 Data sources Patents R&D data Publications (SCI) FATS and AFA CIS

99 Foreign ownership of domestic inventions, 2001-03 (%)
Share of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) owned by foreign residents in total patents invented domestically. This graph only covers countries/economies with more than 200 EPO applications over

100 Domestic ownership of inventions made abroad, 2001-03 (%)
Share of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) invented abroad in total patents owned by country residents. This graph only covers countries/economies with more than 200 EPO applications over

101 Patents with foreign co-inventors, 2001-03 (%)
Share of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) with at least one foreign co-inventors in total patents invented domestically. This graph only covers countries/economies with more than 200 EPO applications over

102 Funds from abroad, as a % of business enterprise R&D, 2005

103 Firms with foreign co-operation in innovation, 2002-04 (%)

104 H. Global economic flows
International trade FDI Foreign affiliates statistics Technology balance of payments

105 Methodology Measuring Globalisation – OECD Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators (2005) Technology Balance of Payments Manual (1990) Part of the Frascati family Now included in the Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators (Ch. 4.4) Purpose of the Handbook is not to evaluate the many consequences of globalisation, but rather to measure its extent and intensity. The proposed indicators apply by and large to multinational firms -- the major players in the process of globalisation -- particularly in the areas of trade, international investment and technology transfer. In particular, it looks at indicators related to foreign direct investment, the economic activities of multinational enterprises, the internationalisation of technology, and trade globalisation. OECD Economic Globalisation Indicators presents the main indicators proposed in the Handbook. It helps to identify the economic activities of member countries that are under foreign control, and more particularly the contribution of multinational enterprises to growth, employment, productivity, labour compensation, research and development, technology diffusion and international trade. These indicators shed new light on financial, technological and trade interdependencies within OECD countries.

106 TBP categories Technology transfers:
Patents Unpatented inventions Licences (linked to know-how) Know-how Transfers of designs (sales, licences, franchises), trademarks and patterns Provision of technical services, comprising: Technical and engineering studies (project design and implementation) Technical assistance Provision of industrial R&D (performed abroad or financed from abroad) International trade in technology as represented by patenting, licenses, know-how, technical assistance and the provision of R&D services

107 TBP data Technology receipts and payments for the whole of the economy and also broken down by industrial sector (ISIC Revision 3) and by country and geographical area Technology receipts and payments of foreign-controlled affiliates, broken down by manufacturing sector Technology receipts and payments for the whole economy, broken down by sector according to the main categories of transaction Receipts and payments of foreign-controlled affiliates in services separately (sectoral breakdown)

108 Technology balance of payments as a % of GDP, 2005

109 I. Productivity and trade
Income and productivity OECD Manual on Measuring Productivity (2001) Technology- and knowledge-intensive industries Measuring Globalisation – OECD Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators (2005) Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification (OECD, STI Working Paper 1997/2 – T. Hatzichronologou) Productivity Manual: Jointly with the Stats directorate Measures of productivity growth constitute core indicators for the analysis of economic growth. However, there are many different approaches to productivity measurement and their calculation and interpretation requires careful consideration, in particular when undertaking international comparisons. The Measuring Productivity OECD Manual is the first comprehensive guide to the various productivity measures High-tech industries Use of an industry breakdown based on ISIC Rev. 3. A technology classification of manufacturing industries based on ISIC Rev. 3 R&D intensities in the 1990s (see Annex 1). A relatively narrow definition of knowledge-based services, which reflects improved data availability. “Real estate activities” (over 10% of total OECD area value added) are excluded, as a significant proportion consists of “Imputed rent of owner-occupied dwellings”. Division 64: Post and telecommunications (these cannot be separated out for most countries). Divisions 65-67: Finance and insurance. Divisions 71-74: Business activities (not including real estate).

110 Technology classification (1)
Originally based on (STI WP 1997/2): R&D expenditures divided by value added R&D expenditures divided by production R&D expenditures plus technology embodied in intermediate and investment goods divided by production

111 Technology classification (2)
For data availability reasons currently based on (Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators ): R&D expenditures divided by value added R&D expenditures divided by production

112 High-technology manufacturing industries
ISIC Industry 353 Aerospace 2423 Pharmaceuticals 30 Computers, office equipment 32 Electronics-communication 33 Precision instruments

113 Medium-high-technology manufacturing industries
ISIC Industry 31 Electrical machinery 34 Motor vehicles Chemicals (except pharmaceuticals) Other transport equipment 29 Machinery and equipment

114 Medium-low-technology manufacturing industries
ISIC Industry 23 Petroleum refining 25 Rubber and plastics 26 Non-metallic mineral products 351 Shipbuilding 27 Basic metals 28 Fabricated metal products (except machinery and equipment)

115 Low-technology manufacturing industries
ISIC Industry 36-37 Other manufacturing industry 20 Wood and furniture 21-22 Paper and printing 17-19 Textiles, clothing, leather

116 Knowledge-intensive services
ISIC Industry 64 Post and telecommunications 65-67 Financial intermediation and insurance activities 71-74 Business services (except real estate)

117 Share of total gross value added, 2004, High- and medium-high-technology manufactures

118 Share of total gross value added, 2004, Knowledge-intensive market services

119 Growth of high- and medium-high technology exports, 1996-2005

120 Links

121 Manuals (1) Frascati Manual: Oslo Manual: E.PDF Canberra Manual: Patent Manual: (forthcoming) 9_34451_ _1_1_1_1,00.html

122 Manuals (2) OECD Guide to Measuring the Information Society: Biotechnology framework: Technology Balance of Payments Manual: Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators: (for sale) 9_34443_ _1_1_1_1,00.html


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