Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Indicators for a Knowledge-Based Economy The OECD perspective Belgrade, 2 October 2008 Martin Schaaper OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Indicators for a Knowledge-Based Economy The OECD perspective Belgrade, 2 October 2008 Martin Schaaper OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Indicators for a Knowledge-Based Economy The OECD perspective Belgrade, 2 October 2008 Martin Schaaper OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Economic Analysis and Statistics Division


3 Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Economic Analysis and Statistics Science and Technology Policy Information, Communication and Computer Policy Biotechnology Structural Policy Division

4 Data Methodology Analysis EAS: how we work

5 S&T: a linear model? Basic research Applied research Development Production and diffusion Inputs (R&D expenditure, Human Resources) Black Box (innovation) Output (patents, publications, high-tech products) The model Indicators

6 A systems approach Innovation is dynamic and complex: Many actors, many linkages Feedback and feed-forward loops innovation is non-linear

7 Evidence-based policy making

8 The Scoreboard: an integrated view A. R&DB. HRST C. Innovation policy F. Particular technologies E. ICT D. Innovation performance G. Internationalisation of S&T H. Global economic flows I. Productivity and trade

9 A. Research and Development First edition published in 1963! Sixth edition published in 2002 Data also collected since 1963

10 Highlights of the 5 th Frascati Manual revision Improved methodological guidelines Update various classifications R&D in service sectors Human resources for R&D Survey methods business enterprise sector GBAORD Globalisation and links to SNA (capitalisation of R&D!) Annexes on health, ICT and biotechnology

11 Definition of R&D Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

12 Exclusions from R&D Education and training Other science and technology activities Other industrial activities Administration and other supporting activities

13 Intramural R&D expenditure By sector of performance (BES, HE, GOV, PNP) By source of funds (same plus abroad) By type of activity (BR, AR, ED) By type of cost (current and capital) By field of science (nat sc, eng & techn, med sc, agri sc, soc sc, hum) By socio-economic objective (~ NABS)

14 Business Expenditure on R&D BERD by industry (NACE/ISIC) –Main activity –Product field –ISIC 73 BERD by size-class

15 Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays for R&D (GBAORD) 1.Exploration and exploitation of the earth 2.Environment 3.Exploration and exploitation of space 4.Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures 5.Energy 6.Industrial production and technology 7.Health 8.Agriculture 9.Education 10.Culture, recreation religion and mass media 11.Political and social systems, structures and processes 12.General advancement of knowledge: GUF 13.General advancement of knowledge: non-GUF 14.Defence

16 R&D Personnel In headcounts and full-time equivalents By sector of employment By occupation (researchers, technicians, oss) By qualification (ISCED) By field of science By industry By sex By age-group

17 R&D intensity, 2005

18 R&D intensity in non-OECD countries, 2005

19 Annual average growth rate of GERD,

20 R&D expenditure by sector of performance, 2005

21 B. Human Resources for Science and Technology (HRST) The Measurement of Human Resources Devoted to Science and Technology – Canberra Manual (1995) The CM is part of the Frascati family Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH)

22 Dimensions of HRST Skills Qualifications Mobility

23 Definition of HRST (Canberra Manual) HRST are people who fulfil one or other of the following conditions: a)successfully completed education at the third level in an S&T field of study; b)not formally qualified as above, but employed in a S&T occupation where the above qualifications are normally required.

24 Definition of HRST (cont.) Education ISCED Level 5- First stage of tertiary education (not leading directly to an advanced research qualification) ISCED 5A: theoretically based/research preparatory or giving access to professions with high skills requirements ISCED 5B: practical/technical/occupationally specific ISCED Level 6- Second stage of tertiary education (leading to an advanced research qualification)

25 Definition of HRST (cont.) Occupation A subset of ISCO Major Group 1: Legislators, senior officials and managers Usually ignored! ISCO Major Group 2: Professionals ISCO Major Group 3: Technicians And Associate Professionals

26 HRST according to the CM

27 Fields of study Natural sciences Engineering and technology Medical sciences Agricultural sciences Social sciences Humanities Other fields NSE

28 National stocks and flows of HRST

29 International mobility of HRST Definitions –Place of birth vs. citizenship Measurement problems –Migration and qualification –Data often not comparable between countries –Migration outflows Relevant for many non-OECD countries Very little detailed information

30 Sources for HRST Education databases Labour force surveys Population registers Censuses National administrative systems for regulating and monitoring immigration Administrative systems relating to temporary residence or work permits for non-nationals Specific surveys

31 Graduation rates at doctoral level, 2004 (% of relevant age cohort)

32 Science and engineering degrees, 2004 (% of total)

33 Tertiary-level graduates in total employment, 2004 (as a % of total)

34 Researchers per 1000 employment, 2005

35 Researchers per 1000 employment in non- OECD economies, 2005

36 Educational attainment in non-OECD economies, 2004

37 Students from non-OECD economies enrolled in OECD countries, 2004

38 Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH) A joint OECD/Eurostat/UNESCO project launched by the OECD Secretariat in 2004 An expert group of 40 countries among which the United States, Japan, China, India, Argentina, Uganda and many European countries A three-component package developed by the expert group: output tabulations, methodological guidelines and a model survey questionnaire


40 Output tabulations

41 Methodological guidelines 1. Introduction 2. Purpose of statistics on CDH 3. The target population 4. Survey methodology 5. Collecting and processing of data 6. Estimation of results and data quality 7. Data transmission

42 CDH data collection First collection in 2005 for 7 countries Second collection launched mid-November 2007 Data received for 22 countries: 20 European countries + Australia + US Data for Canada, Croatia and Malta still pending; new version of Australian data based on the 2006 census to be included; two data series for Italy Other: Japan? Non-OECD countries?

43 Data sources, coverage, limitations 4 types of data sources used: –Dedicated CDH surveys (census or sample) –Register data (Nordic countries) –Other established surveys (census and LFS) –A combination of the above Higher response rates for CDH sample surveys (> 50%) than for census surveys Good coverage of the target population – some difficulties with coverage of foreign doctorate holders

44 Sex-breakdown of doctorate holders

45 Active DH as a % of total labour force

46 Citizenship and residential status of foreign-born DH

47 DH having received their doctorate abroad

48 Ten top countries of previous residence of national DH having lived abroad AustriaBelgium Czech RepublicDenmarkIcelandSlovakiaSpainSweden 1US GermanyUS 2GermanyFranceUSUKSwedenGermanyUKDenmark 3UK GermanyBelgiumCzech Rep.FranceChina 4FranceNetherlandsFranceAustraliaDenmarkFranceGermanyUK 5ItalyGermanyAustriaSwedenGermanyAustriaItalyIran 6BelgiumCanada NorwayBelgiumNetherlandsNorway 7SwitzerlandItaly FranceCanadaJapanPortugalPoland 8AustraliaSwitzerland ItalyArgentinaUKCanadaGermany 9NetherlandsSpainNetherlandsNorwayAustriaCanadaBelgiumFinland 10Spain JapanBelgiumNetherlandsAustraliaItalyMexicoRussia

49 CDH conclusions The first results of the 2005 CDH data collection give interesting insights on the situation of doctorate holders in five countries Progress in the measurement of international mobility by cross-classifying place of birth and citizenship with residential status, length of stay in the country and other variables

50 CDH conclusions (cont.) Important value added by introducing the collection of more qualitative information on the perception and plans of doctoral graduates regarding their employment and international mobility Such qualitative indicators are extremely useful to help understanding the complex patterns of international mobility that cannot only be gauged through quantitative data because of the heterogeneity of migration systems across countries

51 International conference on the Careers and Mobility of Doctorate Holders 1 st December in Brussels Joint OECD/UIS/Eurostat event with support of EC DG Research The conference will serve as a forum to diffuse and discuss the results with interested stakeholders, academics and policy makers

52 International conference on the Careers and Mobility of Doctorate Holders Programme is under discussion, list of topics: –Doctoral and research training –Human resources in research –The labour market of doctorate holders –The international mobility of doctorate holders

53 C. Innovation policy Public-private cross-funding of R&D Government R&D budgets Tax treatment of R&D Patenting by universities and government Collaboration with public research organisations by innovating firms Science linkages in technology Entrepreneurship

54 Defence and civil R&D budgets (GBAORD), 2006, as a % of GDP

55 Rate of tax subsidies for USD 1 of R&D, 2007 (%)

56 D. Innovation performance Patents Bibliometrics Innovation

57 Patents Indicators of invention Administrative data containing much information Data widely available, e.g. in PATSTAT (EPO) Drawbacks –Not all inventions are patented –Value distribution skewed

58 Patent Statistics Task Force OECD Eurostat European Patent Office (EPO) Japan Patent Office (JPO) US National Science Foundation (NSF) US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

59 The Patent Manual 2008 Part of the Frascati family Major revision of the 1994 Manual Provides background information to understand the patent process Proposes standards for compiling indicators

60 Contents of the Patent Manual 1.Introduction 2.Patents as statistical indicators of S&T 3.Patent systems and procedures 4.Counting patents for conducting international comparison 5.Technical and economic classifications of patents 6.The use and analysis of citations 7.Indicators of internationalisation 8.Indicators of patent value

61 Recent work Regional patents Standardising patent holders names Trademarks

62 Trends in triadic patent families

63 Triadic patent families per million population, 2005

64 Any questions? Or is it already time for the coffee break?

65 Innovation: the Oslo Manual Jointly with the EC Part of the Frascati family Used for CIS and national innovation surveys 1 st edition nd edition 1997 coverage expanded to services 3 rd edition 2005 including non-technological innovation

66 Innovation definition An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations

67 The innovation measurement framework

68 Innovation main concepts Innovation Technological Product Goods Services Process Non- technological MarketingOrganisational

69 Technological innovation A product innovation is the introduction of a good or service that is new or significantly improved with respect to its characteristics or intended uses. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, incorporated software, user friendliness or other functional characteristics. A process innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved production or delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software.

70 Non-technological innovation A marketing innovation is the implementation of a new marketing method involving significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing An organisational innovation is the implementation of a new organisational method in the firms business practices, workplace organisation or external relations

71 More definitions (1) Innovation activities are all scientific, technological, organisational, financial and commercial steps which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of innovations. Some innovation activities are themselves innovative, others are not novel activities but are necessary for the implementation of innovations. Innovation activities also include R&D that is not directly related to the development of a specific innovation.

72 More definitions (2) An innovative firm is one that has implemented an innovation during the period under review. A product process innovative firm is one that has implemented a new or significantly improved product or process during the period under review.

73 More definitions (3) Type of innovation: successful, unsuccessful, ongoing Degree of novelty: technologically new / significantly improved/disruptive Approach: subject vs. object Degree of novelty: technologically new / significantly improved Focus: business enterprise sector

74 Innovation activities for product and process innovations Intramural (in-house) R&D Acquisition of R&D (extramural R&D) Acquisition of other external knowledge Acquisition of machinery, equipment and other capital goods Other preparations for product and process innovations Market preparations for product innovations Training

75 Innovation data Objectives of innovation Factors assisting/hampering innovation Expenditure on innovation Impacts and outcomes Linkages

76 In-house product innovators by size (as a % of all firms),

77 In-house process innovators by sector (as a % of all firms),

78 Share of turnover due to new-to-market product innovations by size (as a % of turnover),

79 Non- technological innovators by sector (as a % of all firms),

80 E. ICT OECD Guide to Measuring the Information Society –OECD definition of the ICT sector –OECD classification of ICT products –Model survey of ICT use in households and by individuals –Model survey of ICT use by businesses –OECD definitions of Internet and e-commerce transactions –Impacts –Annex for developing countries

81 Households with broadband access, (%)

82 Individuals using the Internet from any location, 2006 (%)

83 Broadband penetration by size class, As a % of businesses with 10 or more employees

84 Percentage of enterprises' total turnover from e-commerce, (%)

85 Trade in ICT goods as a % of total trade

86 Business R&D expenditure by selected ICT manufacturing industries, as a % of GDP

87 F. Particular technologies Biotechnology Nanotechnology Environmental science

88 Biotechnology A series of ad-hoc meetings of a NESTI spin-off group A framework for biotechnology statistics (2005) –Definitions –Model survey of biotechnology use and development –Classifications OECD biotechnology statistics

89 The single definition of biotechnology The application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or non- living materials for the production of knowledge, goods and services.

90 The list-based definition of biotechnology technoques DNA/RNA : Genomics, pharmacogenomics, gene probes, genetic engineering, DNA/RNA sequencing/ synthesis/amplification, gene expression profiling, and use of antisense technology. Proteins and other molecules: Sequencing/synthesis/engineering of proteins and peptides (including large molecule hormones); improved delivery methods for large molecule drugs; proteomics, protein isolation and purification, signaling, identification of cell receptors. Cell and tissue culture and engineering : Cell/tissue culture, tissue engineering (including tissue scaffolds and biomedical engineering), cellular fusion, vaccine/immune stimulants, embryo manipulation. Process biotechnology techniques : Fermentation using bioreactors, bioprocessing, bioleaching, biopulping, biobleaching, biodesulphurisation, bioremediation, biofiltration and phytoremediation. Gene and RNA vectors : Gene therapy, viral vectors. Bioinformatics : Construction of databases on genomes, protein sequences; modelling complex biological processes, including systems biology. Nanobiotechnology : Applies the tools and processes of nano/microfabrication to build devices for studying biosystems and applications in drug delivery, diagnostics, etc.

91 Other relevant definitions Biotechnology product Biotechnology process Biotechnology active firm (enterprise) Dedicated biotechnology firm Innovative biotechnology firm Biotechnology R&D Biotechnology sales/revenue Biotechnology expenses

92 Biotechnology statistics & indicators Biotechnology products and processes Biotechnology R&D Biotechnology firms by type (dedicated, innovative) Biotechnology sales/revenue Biotechnology expenses Biotechnology employment Biotechnology patents

93 Recommended biotechnology R&D question Did the R&D reported above include any biotechnology R&D (see definitions)? Yes / No If yes, please provide an estimate of the share of the total intramural R&D expenditure reported earlier that is attributable to biotechnology. ________%

94 Number of firms active in biotechnology, 2003

95 Total expenditures on biotechnology R&D by biotech- active firms, millions of USD PPP

96 Biotechnology patents as a % of national total (PCT filings),

97 G. Internationalisation of S&T Foreign ownership of domestic inventions Domestic ownership of inventions made abroad International co-operation in research Sources of R&D funding from abroad International collaboration in science Internationalisation of R&D Foreign collaboration on innovation

98 Data sources Patents R&D data Publications (SCI) FATS and AFA CIS

99 Foreign ownership of domestic inventions, (%)

100 Domestic ownership of inventions made abroad, (%)

101 Patents with foreign co- inventors, (%)

102 Funds from abroad, as a % of business enterprise R&D, 2005

103 Firms with foreign co-operation in innovation, (%)

104 H. Global economic flows International trade FDI Foreign affiliates statistics Technology balance of payments

105 Methodology Measuring Globalisation – OECD Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators (2005) Technology Balance of Payments Manual (1990) –Part of the Frascati family –Now included in the Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators (Ch. 4.4)

106 TBP categories Technology transfers: –Patents –Unpatented inventions –Licences (linked to know-how) –Know-how Transfers of designs (sales, licences, franchises), trademarks and patterns Provision of technical services, comprising: –Technical and engineering studies (project design and implementation) –Technical assistance Provision of industrial R&D (performed abroad or financed from abroad)

107 TBP data Technology receipts and payments for the whole of the economy and also broken down by industrial sector (ISIC Revision 3) and by country and geographical area Technology receipts and payments of foreign- controlled affiliates, broken down by manufacturing sector Technology receipts and payments for the whole economy, broken down by sector according to the main categories of transaction Receipts and payments of foreign-controlled affiliates in services separately (sectoral breakdown)

108 Technology balance of payments as a % of GDP, 2005

109 I. Productivity and trade Income and productivity –OECD Manual on Measuring Productivity (2001) Technology- and knowledge-intensive industries –Measuring Globalisation – OECD Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators (2005) –Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification (OECD, STI Working Paper 1997/2 – T. Hatzichronologou)

110 Technology classification (1) Originally based on (STI WP 1997/2): 1.R&D expenditures divided by value added 2.R&D expenditures divided by production 3.R&D expenditures plus technology embodied in intermediate and investment goods divided by production

111 Technology classification (2) For data availability reasons currently based on (Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators ): 1.R&D expenditures divided by value added R&D expenditures divided by production

112 High-technology manufacturing industries ISICIndustry 353Aerospace 2423Pharmaceuticals 30Computers, office equipment 32Electronics-communication 33Precision instruments

113 Medium-high-technology manufacturing industries ISICIndustry 31Electrical machinery 34Motor vehicles Chemicals (except pharmaceuticals) Other transport equipment 29Machinery and equipment

114 Medium-low-technology manufacturing industries ISICIndustry 23Petroleum refining 25Rubber and plastics 26Non-metallic mineral products 351Shipbuilding 27Basic metals 28 Fabricated metal products (except machinery and equipment)

115 Low-technology manufacturing industries ISICIndustry 36-37Other manufacturing industry 20Wood and furniture 21-22Paper and printing 17-19Textiles, clothing, leather

116 Knowledge-intensive services ISICIndustry 64Post and telecommunications Financial intermediation and insurance activities 71-74Business services (except real estate)

117 Share of total gross value added, 2004, High- and medium-high- technology manufactures

118 Share of total gross value added, 2004, Knowledge- intensive market services

119 Growth of high- and medium-high technology exports,

120 Links or

121 Manuals (1) Frascati Manual: E.PDF Oslo Manual: E.PDF Canberra Manual: Patent Manual: (forthcoming) 9_34451_ _1_1_1_1,00.html

122 Manuals (2) OECD Guide to Measuring the Information Society: Biotechnology framework: Technology Balance of Payments Manual: Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators: (for sale) 9_34443_ _1_1_1_1,00.html


Download ppt "Indicators for a Knowledge-Based Economy The OECD perspective Belgrade, 2 October 2008 Martin Schaaper OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google