Presentation on theme: "How to Build a Knowledge Economy and How to Know When You Have One"— Presentation transcript:
1How to Build a Knowledge Economy and How to Know When You Have One John DrydenDeputy DirectorDirectorate for Science, Technology and Industry, OECDMEASURING AND FOSTERING THE PROGRESS OF SOCIETIESSecond OECD World Forum on "Statistics, Knowledge and Policy"Istanbul, Turkey, June 2007
2What is a Knowledge Economy? Related conceptsThe New EconomyThe Information Economy (bio-economy, etc.,)The Service EconomyThe Innovation EconomyThe Knowledge-based Economy
3Characteristics of a Knowledge Economy High value-added goods and services mainly because of the “knowledge content” of their factor inputsPerformance of R&DHigh educational standards, human resources in S&T, workforce skillsStrong innovation performance, innovations successful in the marketIntensive and broad use of generic technologies, esp. ICTsStrong “high-tech” sectors, intensive use of “knowledge-intensive services”Value chains highly globalisedInvestment in “knowledge” now about the same as that in fixed capital (~8pc of GDP)
4How to Build One? Copy the Lisbon Agenda? Research and Development – inputs, outputs and outcomesHuman Resources – education, skills, mobilityInnovation and linkages between the “actors”; “open innovation”Encourage (production and) use of generic technologiesFramework conditions – open markets, absorptive capacity; attention to the demand sideOpen-ness and globalisation – knowledge flows and the global enterprise
5How to Know When You’ve Got One? Hard to measure, as the concept isn’t tightly defined.It’s the results in terms of growth, incomes, productivity and employment – and other measures of well-being that take account of social and environmental “wealth” – that countMeasures of international “competitiveness”Doubts about utility of composite “knowledge economy index”Need to take account of scope (intl, natl, regional, local); and aggregation (whole economy, sector, firm)Need data and analytical toolkit to develop battery of indicators in main issue areas
6The OECD STI Scoreboard Published every other year, in print and onlineOver 200 internationally comparable indicatorsFree access on-line edition with Statlinks: direct URL links to underlying Excel sheets used in the graphs.STI Scoreboard 2005 available at:Multilingual summaries:
7STI Scoreboard Forthcoming in October Comprehensive coverage of the different facets of the knowledge economy in 9 sections:R&D and investment in knowledgeHuman resources in S&TInnovation policyInnovation performanceICT: an enabler for the knowledge societyParticular fieldsInternationalisation of S&TGlobal economic flowsTrade and productivity7
8New in the 2007 Scoreboard 90 families of indicators, over 200 figures Around 25% of new indicators compared to 2005 edition. Examples:S&T indicators in biotech, nanotech and environmental technologiesPatenting by universities, patenting by regions, science linkages in technologyEmployment by skills and earnings by level of skillsInternational outsourcing of intermediary inputsNew multi-colour double-page layout for easy readability
9Investment in Knowledge R&D, Software and Higher Education as a percentage of GDP (2003)The knowledge economy is about more than R&DOECD economies taken together, invested 5% of GDP in knowledge in 2003.In US, close to half of this investment concerns software and higher education, whereas in EU countries the main component is R&D investment.
10R&D Intensity as a percentage of GDP (2005) China is now one of the major players in the global knowledge economyIn 2005, China stood just behind the Triadic countries in terms of share of R&D in total R&D; R&D investment represents 15% in total OECD R&D.
11OECD output of university and doctoral degrees % of all OECD graduates receiving their degrees by region of graduation and field of study, 2004European universities are a main source of science and engineering degrees in the world43% of total OECD university degrees originate in Europe, compared to only 22% for the United States.
12Employment by Foreign Multinationals Trends in the share of affiliates under foreign control in manufacturing employment in selected OECD countries between 1995 and 2003Employment by foreign affiliates increased in France but decreased in the United States, Germany and Italy.
13Labour productivity growth Contributions of key activities to annual growth of value added per person employedBusiness services are a main catalyst of productivity in numerous OECD countriesIn Canada, Greece, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, it contributed to over 55% of the labour productivity growth.
14Broadband Access by households Households with broadband access a percentage of all households ( )Growing adoption by consumers but remaining divergences across countriesIn 2006, Korea remained the country with the largest share of households with a broadband connection via a computer or mobile phone (94%).
15Patenting by Universities Share of patents filed owned by universities in total inventionsIntellectual property policies for university innovation is giving results in the EUIn , more than 10% of patents applied by US residents are owned by public institutions, whereas in Europe (25), this share was around 4%.With respect to , EU (25) doubled the share of patents owned by universities whereas US has decreased it slightly.
16Biotechnology firms’ activities Percentage of biotechnology firms active by field of application (2003)Predominance of health-related applications in biotechnologyThe majority of firms are active in health (45%), followed by agro-food (22%), industry-environmental applications (19%), and “other” (18%).
17Nanotechnology Patenting Worldwide total number of nanotechnology patents by application fieldsNanotechnologies have the potential to generate diverse industrial applicationsNanotechnology is multifaceted. It consists of a set of technologies on the nanometre scale rather than a single technological field.
18The next edition of the STI Scoreboard will appear in October 2007