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Authors: Maureen Barry and Joan Naturale NTID/RIT Date submitted to deafed.net - 3/28/06 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the authors.
"In comparing various authors with one another, I have discovered that some of the gravest and latest writers have transcribed, word for word, from former writers, without making acknowledgement." Pliny the Elder (23 AD-79 AD), Natural History http://www.quotationspage.com/search.php3?homesearch=pliny+the+elder http://www.quotationspage.com/search.php3?homesearch=pliny+the+elder
Contents Introduction Plagiarism on the Rise Plagiarism Definition RIT Policy on Academic Dishonesty Detecting Plagiarism Famous Cases Cheating Culture What Can We Do
Contents, continued Technology Where Papers Can be Found Online Tutorials Library Resources Strategies for Research Papers Helping to Combat Plagiarism MLA and APA Resources Books References
Ramifications of cheating What would happen if our doctors, lawyers, accountants, engineers, and other professionals cheated their way though school? Discuss with students http://campuslife.byu.edu/studenthonorassociation http://campuslife.byu.edu/studenthonorassociation /
What Do We Know About Plagiarism Online Quizzes http://tip.uwyo.edu/utilizing/utilizing7.html http://www.wmich.edu/library/searchpath/module6/ 05-paraphrasing.html http://tip.uwyo.edu/utilizing/utilizing7.html http://www.wmich.edu/library/searchpath/module6/ 05-paraphrasing.html High School Cheating http://idea3.rit.edu http://idea3.rit.edu
Plagiarism on the Rise Some statistics and facts According to a 2003 study by McCabe 18,000 college students in 23 institutions, 38% of the undergraduate students indicated they had engaged in one or more instances of cut & paste plagiarism using the Internet in the past year - paraphrasing or copying a few sentences of material from the Internet without citing the source." In a similar 2001 survey only 10% acknowledged cut & paste plagiarism Almost half of the students (44%) indicated they considered such behavior trivial or not cheating at all, perhaps explaining its widespread occurrence Approximately one-quarter of the 2,175 graduate students participating in the survey also reported engaging in cut & paste plagiarism from Internet and written sources 80% college bound students admit to cheating on schoolwork, yet 95% never get caught. 90% students believe cheaters are never caught or disciplined 257 chief student affairs officers across the country believe the cheating problem has not been addressed adequately http://ur.rutgers.edu/medrel/viewArticle.html?ArticleID=3408 http://ur.rutgers.edu/medrel/viewArticle.html?ArticleID=3408
Plagiarism Definition Plagiarism is defined as presenting someone elses work, including the work of other students, as ones own. Any ideas or materials taken from another source for either written or oral use must be fully acknowledged, unless the information is common knowledge. What is considered common knowledge may differ from course to course. http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/definition.html http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/definition.html Discussion: Students often have a lack of understanding about why it is unethical/immoral--definitions are not enough
Guidelines http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/definition.html http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/definition.html A student must not adopt or reproduce ideas, opinions, theories, formulas, graphics, or pictures of another person without acknowledgment. A student must give credit to the originality of others and acknowledge an indebtedness whenever: Directly quoting another persons actual words, whether oral or written; Using another persons ideas, opinions, or theories; Paraphrasing the words, ideas, opinions, or theories of others, whether oral or written; Borrowing facts, statistics, or illustrative material; or Offering materials assembled or collected by others in the form of projects or collections without acknowledgment.
RIT Policy On Academic Dishonesty https://mycourses.rit.edu/index.asp http://www.rit.edu/~301www/rr_academicdishonesty.php3 https://mycourses.rit.edu/index.asp http://www.rit.edu/~301www/rr_academicdishonesty.php3 The Rochester Institute of Technology does not condone any form of academic dishonesty. Any act of improperly representing another person's work as one's own is construed as an act of academic dishonesty. These acts include, but are not limited to, plagiarism in any form, or use of information and materials not authorized by the instructor during an examination. If a faculty member judges a student to be guilty of some form of academic dishonesty, the student may be given a failing grade for that piece of work or for the course, depending upon the severity of the misconduct. If the student believes the action by the instructor to be incorrect or the penalty too severe, appeal may be made to the Academic Conduct Committee of the college in which the course is offered.
Detection Clues Quotes do not have citations Citations are to material not owned by library Citations cant be verified- made up by student Citations do not match works cited Citations older than 5 years Student cant identify citations or provide copies of the cited (false citations) Inactive URLs References made to historical persons/events in the current sense Student cant summarize the main points or answer questions about the paper http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/detecting.html http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/detecting.html
Detection Clues Language Writing style, language, vocabulary, tone, grammar is above or below what the student normally produces Googled sentences and Thesaurized sentences we are…you are Sentence lengths long Writing style changes from section to section Use scholarly adjectives Illogical sentences/sections that go off topic-contains a few paragraphs to bring in line with topic Strange grammar or syntax (could be the result of using a web translation service to translate a copied paper into French or German and then back to English to foil detection). http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/ detecting.html
Detection Clues Look for gray/strange text at the top/bottom of printed pages Too beautifully or badly formatted.. Page numbers, headings or spacing dont look right Mixed citation styles Web print-outs from term paper mills with URLs or web site page numbers Quotations that sound out of place, are there bibliographic entries for them Does the paper address the assignment requirements or are portions left out? Is it the correct type of paper - descriptive, narrative? Different fonts in different sections of the paper from cutting and pasting http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/detecting.html http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/detecting.html
Detecting Plagiarism: Turnitin.com http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html 200+ faculty: saves time checking plagiarism (Buehler, 2006) 10,832+ students have submitted 25,062 + papers and the papers are in the database (Buehler, 2006) Integrates with webcourse such as IdeaTools Over 90% of papers submitted have little or no plagiarism Appears to discourage and prevent plagiarism Educational tool to instruct students on proper use of internet resources and citations. For ex., some professors ask students to submit drafts and correct the paper digitally and work on citations. http://idea3.rit.edu/jxnwml/libres/index.asp http://idea3.rit.edu/jxnwml/libres/index.asp
How Does Turnitin Work? Papers are cross-referenced against the: Internet (more than 4.5 billion pages indexed). Millions of student papers already submitted to Turnitin ProQuest databases and The Gutenburg Turnabout time Turnitin prepares a color-coded originality report for each submitted paper Student may view originality report Faculty review reports to make final determination on plagiarism level. Did the student use quotes and paraphrases correctly? If interested in setting up account, email Joan at JXNWML@rit.edu http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.htmlJXNWML@rit.eduhttp://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html
Cheating Culture Why Do Students Cheat? Lack of knowledge of what plagiarism really is Grades/College Admission/Competition Time Management, Laziness, Stress Pressure from peers and parents Anxiety/Fear Lack of Oversight by Professors-No Consequences Technology Weak Skills, Ignorance, Cultural Differences Negative Role Models http://www.southalabama.edu/univlib/sauer/plagiarism.html http://www.southalabama.edu/univlib/sauer/plagiarism.html Anti-education attitude Get too much help from tutors
Famous Cases in the News Doris Goodwin-Historian Stephen Ambrose-Historian Byrony Lavery-Playwright Janet Dailey and Nora Roberts- Novelist Jacque Loussier and Eminem-Musician George Harrison-Musician Senator Joseph Biden http://www.famousplagiarists.com/ http://www.famousplagiarists.com/
Professional Jason Blair-NY Times reporter Ken Powers-New England Patriot (plagiarized Sports Illustrated) Tom Squiteri-USA Today (plagiarized from Indianapolis Star) Stephen Glass-Reporter for New Republic Firefighters-Whites cheated on exams Professors-Benson Tong (Wichita State turned down for tenure and transferred to Gallaudet) and George Carney (Oklahoma State-barred from teaching) Clery/Minister-U.S. News World Report
Cheating Culture Rationalization/ Excuses Poor me…I have no choice Not Taught to Cite/Paraphrase/ Take Notes (Lathrop & Foss, 2000). http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/col/bruinsuccess/03/ images/03_01_dialog. gif
Evolution of Cheating Pre-technology Copy from friends Parents write papers or help too much Fraternities, Sororities paper files Rubber Band/Water Bottles/Cap Sign Language/Tapping/ Coughing Write answers on hands Pay someone to write your papers (Lathrop & Foss, 2000) http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/col/bruinsuccess/05/images/0 5_07_Q4.gif
Technology, continued Cell phones-codes Calculators-Electronic cheat sheet Camera Phones-can post on web immediately Computers Pagers-Use IM, Email answers (vibrate, no beeps) PDAs and Digital Watches (infrared transmitter) Internet-Cut and Paste Culture Underground Websites-share papers (Lathrop & Foss, 2000)
Technology, continued Chat Rooms, Online Whiz, Message Board Paper Mills-Free and for Fee Foreign Language Classes-use F.L. translators Computer Networks-Load papers and exams-share Fax Create small cheat sheets on photocopier Headsets-listen to recorded dates, formulas $3,000 pen with tiny transmitter/cordless earpiece Minature wireless video cams-get answers back via pager (Lathrop & Foss, 2000)
Where Papers Can Be Found On the Internet Databases Conference Proceedings on the web Example of a good paper (won an award) –Student posts paper on the web Paper Mills-Free and fee http://www.coastal.edu/library/presentati ons/mills2.html http://www.coastal.edu/library/presentati ons/mills2.html http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/col/bruinsuccess/05/images/05_01_dialog.gif
Strategies for Research Process Make term papers specific with detailed questions that must be answered Avoid broad topics or select your own topic assignments Do some of the research process in classfor ex., outlining, brainstorming, free writing While doing research, emphasize taking notes and citing where its from (Noodlebib annotation) Set up writing conferences to work through drafts Have 1-2 drafts posted online (Barry, Ishman & Mittelman, 2005)
Continued Show example of MLA or APA paper http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/humanities/pdf/Hacker-Daly-MLA.pdf http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/humanities/pdf/Hacker-Daly-MLA.pdf Have different sections due over the quarter at specific times and work on the sections Give points to sections of the paper Ex: 200 points Thesis statement/abstract (10) focusing a topic, initial research Proposal (10) Outlines (10) finding background info, reading books/articles Annotated Bibliography (20) summarizing the info found Rough Draft or Working Notes (30) peer review Cited References(20) Final Paper (100) Assignment Design Resources http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/assignment.html Preventing Plagiarism http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/preventing.html http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/assignment.htmlhttp://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/preventing.html
Quote Summary Paraphrase Your Own Ideas http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/col/bruinsuccess/03/12.cfm
MLA and APA Style Guides APA (5 th ed.) and MLA Style (6 th ed.) Guides at Wallace http://wally.rit.edu/internet/subject/apamla.htm http://wally.rit.edu/internet/subject/apamla.htm Noodlebib Citation Builder http://wally.rit.edu/electronic/noodletools/noodletools.html http://wally.rit.edu/electronic/noodletools/noodletools.html
Possible Activities View the movie Shattered Glass about the New Republic writer Stephen Glass and use the activities suggested at this link http://www.shatteredglassmovie.com/ index_flash.html http://www.shatteredglassmovie.com/ index_flash.html Try to apply the plagiarism concept to students majors and discuss examples. ETC Videos Code of Honor Shattered Glass 20/20 (VH 1174), Primetime, (VH1083) 48 Hrs (VH 1426)
Online Tutorials Tutorials You Quote It, You Note It! http://library.acadiau.ca/tutorials/plagiarism/ LOBO, The Library Online Basic Orientation http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/lobo2/ http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/lobo2/ Bruin Success with Less Stress http://www.library.ucla.edu/bruinsuccess http://www.library.ucla.edu/bruinsuccess The Plagiarism Court: You Be the Judge Tutorial http://library2.fairfield.edu/instruction/ramona/plugin.html Paraphrasing Tutorial Practice http://tip.uwyo.edu/utilize/page4.htm WMU Paraphrasing Practice http://www.wmich.edu/library/searchpath/module6/05-paraphrasing.html How to Introduce Quotes http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/quoteintro.html http://tip.uwyo.edu/utilize/page4.htm http://www.wmich.edu/library/searchpath/module6/05-paraphrasing.html http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/quoteintro.html You Quote It, You Note It! http://library.acadiau.ca/tutorials/plagiarism/ LOBO, The Library Online Basic Orientation http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/lobo2/ http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/lobo2/ Bruin Success with Less Stress http://www.library.ucla.edu/bruinsuccess http://www.library.ucla.edu/bruinsuccess The Plagiarism Court: You Be the Judge http://library2.fairfield.edu/instruction/ramona/plugin.htmlhttp://library2.fairfield.edu/instruction/ramona/plugin.html How to Introduce Quotes http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/quoteintro.html http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/quoteintro.html
Book References PN167.B68 2004 PN171.F56 L56 2004
The Right Way to Paraphrase and Cite (adapted from Lipson) When you rely on others work or ideas, acknowledge it openly. When you use their ideas or data, give them credit When you use their exact words, use quotation marks plus a citation When you paraphrase use your own voice and cite the original source. Make sure your language doesnt mimic the original.
Lipson, continued When you draw on others work, present it fairly. No distortions, no straw men. When you present empirical material, show where you acquired it so others can check the data themselves. (The exception is commonly known material, which doesnt need to be cited).
References Austin, M. J., & Brown, L. D. (1999, October). Internet plagiarism: Developing strategies to curb student academic dishonesty. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(1), 21-33. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from Science Direct database: http://wally.rit.edu/electronic/scidirect/scidirect.htmlscidirect/scidirect.html http://wally.rit.edu/electronic/scidirect/scidirect.htmlscidirect/scidirect.html Barry, M., Ishman, S., & Mittelman, L. (2005, September). Plagiarism: Why it is such a problem for Deaf and second language learners. Presentation presented at Originality, Imitation, Plagiarism: A Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Writing, Ann Arbor, MI. Barry, M., Ishman, S., & Mittelman, L. (2005, June). Plagiarism: The bane of our existence. Presentation presented at English Think Tank: Literacy in the Classroom and Beyond, Rochester, NY. Barry, M., & Naturale, J. (2005, July 20). Log on. search. click. download. cut. copy. paste. order. email. im. snap a picture: Digital plagiarism in the 21st century. Presentation presented at First Year Experience Workshop, RIT, Rochester, NY. Bates, P., & Fain, M. (2005, September 12). Cheating 101: Internet paper mills. In Kimball library: Presentations. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Coastal Carolina University Library Web site: http://www.coastal.edu/library/presentations/mills2.htmlhttp://www.coastal.edu/library/presentations/mills2.html Buehler, M. (2006-06, Winter). Copyright corner. Scholarship at RIT, 4.
Cheating culture (2004, February 14). Fox 5 news. Retrieved March 10, 2006, from http://www.turnitin.com/static/popups/fox.html http://www.turnitin.com/static/popups/fox.html Harris, R. (2004, November 17). Anti-plagiarism strategies for research papers. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htmhttp://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm How to recognize plagiarism. (2005, June 24). Definition of plagiarism. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Indiana University, School of Education Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/definition.html http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/definition.html IParadigms. (2006). Turnitin. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from http://turnitin.com/static/home.html http://turnitin.com/static/home.html Jayne, E. A. (2002). Plagiarism? Its your call! In Searchpath (module 6). Retrieved March 10, 2006, from Western Michigan University Library Web site: http://www.wmich.edu/library/searchpath/module6/05-paraphrasing.html http://www.wmich.edu/library/searchpath/module6/05-paraphrasing.html Johnson, D. (2004, March). Plagiarism-proofing assignments. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(7), 549- 52. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from Academic Search Elite database: http://wally.rit.edu/electronic/acadelite/acadelite.html http://wally.rit.edu/electronic/acadelite/acadelite.html Kearley, J. (2005). Utlizing: Plagiarism. In Tutorial for info power (chap. 5). Retrieved March 10, 2006, from University of Wisconsin Libraries Web site: http://tip.uwyo.edu/utilizing/utilizing7.html http://tip.uwyo.edu/utilizing/utilizing7.html
Lathrop, A., & Foss, K. (2000). Student cheating and plagiarism in the internet era: A wakeup call. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Leland, B. H. (2002, January 29). Plagiarism and the web. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from Western Illinois University Web site: http://wiu.edu/users/mfbhl/wiu/plagiarism.htmhttp://wiu.edu/users/mfbhl/wiu/plagiarism.htm Lesko, J. P. (2006). Famous plagiarists. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from War on Plagiarism.org Web site: http://www.famousplagiarists.com/http://www.famousplagiarists.com/ Lion Gates Entertainment. (2003). Shattered Glass. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from http://www.shatteredglassmovie.com/index_flash.html http://www.shatteredglassmovie.com/index_flash.html Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college: How to prepare citations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Muha, D. (2003, August 28). New study confirms internet plagiarism Is prevalent. In Rutgers media relations. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Rutgers State University Web site: http://ur.rutgers.edu/medrel/viewArticle.html?ArticleID=3408 http://ur.rutgers.edu/medrel/viewArticle.html?ArticleID=3408 Naturale, J. (2005). Turnitin. In Library resources. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from NTID Ideatools Web site: http://idea3.rit.edu/jxnwml/libres/index.asphttp://idea3.rit.edu/jxnwml/libres/index.asp Nowakowski, F. (2005, September 12). Detecting plagiarism. In Faculty resources: Plagiarism and intellectual honesty. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Dalhousie University Web site: http://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/detecting.htmlhttp://plagiarism.dal.ca/faculty/detecting.html
Posters. (n.d.). SHA Website. Retrieved March 10, 2006, from Brigham Young University, Student Honor Association Web site http://campuslife.byu.edu/studenthonorassociation/http://campuslife.byu.edu/studenthonorassociation Rambo, R. (2002, August 31). Preventing plagiarism from the web. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Illinois Valley Community College Web site: http://www.ivcc.edu/rambo/plagiarism.htmhttp://www.ivcc.edu/rambo/plagiarism.htm RIT policy on academic dishonesty. (1977, September). RIT myCourses. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from RIT Center for Student Conduct and Conflict Management Services Web site: http://www.rit.edu/~301www/rr_academicdishonesty.php3 http://www.rit.edu/~301www/rr_academicdishonesty.php3 Sauer, J. (2005, August). A guide for instructors. In Plagiarism. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Univeristy of South Alabama Library Web site: http://www.southalabama.edu/univlib/sauer/plagiarism.html http://www.southalabama.edu/univlib/sauer/plagiarism.html Spalenka, G. (Ill.) (2003, September/October). Whose idea was that? In Stanford magazine. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Stanford Alumni Association Web site: http://www.stanfordalumni.org/news/magazine/2003/sepoct/images/plagiarism/steal.jpg http://www.stanfordalumni.org/news/magazine/2003/sepoct/images/plagiarism/steal.jpg Swartz, P. (n.d.). Oops, I plagiarized. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from UCLA Library Web site: http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/col/bruinsuccess/03/images/03_01_dialog.gif http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/col/bruinsuccess/03/images/03_01_dialog.gif Weinraub, C. J. (Producer), Gibson, C. (Writer), & Paul, G. (Director). (2004, April 29). Primetime: Cheating crisis in Americas schools New Hudson, MI: ABC News Productions.
Additional Resources Ethics http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/AcademicIntegrity/Index.html http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/AcademicIntegrity/Index.html Center for Academic Integrity http://www.academicintegrity.org/http://www.academicintegrity.org/ Plagiarism and Copyright Resources from Wallace Library http://wally.rit.edu/researchguides/citing.html http://wally.rit.edu/researchguides/citing.html Publishing and Scholarship Support Center at Wallace Library http://wally.rit.edu/userservices/pubschol/ http://wally.rit.edu/userservices/pubschol/