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Gail M. Dummer Professor Emeritus Department of Kinesiology

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1 Gail M. Dummer Professor Emeritus Department of Kinesiology
Plagiarism Gail M. Dummer Professor Emeritus Department of Kinesiology

2 Note Sources for images, and reference citations for quotations and paraphrased material, are provided in the notes under each slide in the notes version of this PowerPoint presentation – no plagiarism!

3 What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism means “the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit” Source: MSU’s Procedures Concerning Allegations of Misconduct in Research and Creative Activities Source: MSU’s Procedures Concerning Allegations of Misconduct in Research and Creative Activities

4 Understanding the Definition
Appropriation means using or taking something that is not yours Plagiarism is stealing by using another person’s words or ideas Plagiarism is academically dishonest because students, scholars, and faculty members are expected to do their own work

5 Understanding the Definition
The terms ideas, processes, results, or words refer to another person’s intellectual property Plagiarizers use or take intellectual property Other thieves use or take physical property such as money, computers, things, etc. Clip art source:

6 Understanding the Definition
Plagiarism means taking or using any of the following intellectual property without permission or giving credit: Words … copying more than 4-6 consecutive words, rearranging phrases, or paraphrasing extensively Ideas … using original information learned from conference presentations, confidential reviews, etc.

7 Understanding the Definition
Continued from previous slide: Processes … adopting or using research methods described by another investigator, especially when the research method is not common knowledge Results … using or reporting data, figures, or tables that represent another investigator’s research results

8 Understanding the Definition
Giving appropriate credit refers to: Providing the name of the original author, artist, researcher, or scholar Providing sufficient publication data that another person can find the original source – use disciplinary standards! Using quotation symbols to indicate direct quotes

9 Is This Plagiarism? Next six slides Read information on the slides
Listen to variations of the situation described by the presenter Determine whether plagiarism occurred Discuss uncertainties with your mentor

10 #1 - Is This Plagiarism? You are a member of the audience where research results are presented. You use ideas described by one of the speakers in the design of your next research project. Clipart source: What matters in your decision? Whether the idea is common knowledge or an original contribution by the speaker? The type of event – lecture in a course, department meeting, professional conference? Whether the idea is in a written format – handout for the audience, publication?

11 #2 - Is This Plagiarism? You are reading a journal article, chapter, or book. You paraphrase passages of text from the material you have been reading in the literature review of a manuscript you are writing. Clipart source: What matters in your decision? Whether the interesting material is common knowledge? Whether the interesting material is an idea, words, process/methods, or results/tables/figures? Whether you use quotation symbols to denote direct quotations from another source? Whether you provide a reference citation to the source in the manuscript you are writing? Whether the your manuscript is a course assignment, a thesis/dissertation, or a journal article?

12 #3 - Is This Plagiarism? You are reviewing a submitted manuscript. You decide to use novel research methods described in that manuscript to enhance your own research. Image source: What matters in your decision? Whether the interesting material is novel research methods, a useful synthesis of relevant literature, useful instrumentation, or a useful set of reference citations? Whether you are reviewing submitted journal manuscripts, reviewing submitted grant proposals, or grading papers submitted by your students? Whether the manuscript status is under review, accepted, or actually published? Whether you signed a confidentiality agreement when you accepted responsibility as a reviewer? Whether you know the identity of the author? Whether you think you will get caught?

13 #4 - Is This Plagiarism? You are doing research using the internet. You choose to use ideas from a web site in the design of your next research project, and also use some quotes from the web site in your literature review. Clipart source: What matters in your decision? Whether the material is posted on a web site as compared to published in a journal or book? Whether there is an author versus no obvious author to the web site? Whether the interesting material consists of ideas, words, images, etc.? Whether the web site includes a notice that readers have permission to use the content?

14 #5 - Is This Plagiarism? You are writing a paper in English, and your native language is Martian. When writing a review of literature, you use another author’s exact words because you are not confident about paraphrasing or synthesizing the ideas in your own words in English. Clipart source: What matters in your decision? Whether you use just a few of the other author’s words or many words? How many is too many? Whether you use quotation marks and a reference citation to give credit to the other author? Whether your paper is a course assignment, a thesis/dissertation, or a manuscript for publication?

15 #6 - Is This Plagiarism? You are writing a manuscript for publication that is based upon your own previous research. You decide to include some exact text from one of your earlier manuscripts in the new paper. Clipart source: What matters in your decision? Is it possible to self-plagiarize? Whether your earlier manuscript was presented at a conference? Whether your earlier manuscript was published in a journal or book or on the internet?

16 Plagiarism in Research
Plagiarism is specifically defined as a form of research misconduct The definition of research misconduct on the next slide is from the MSU Procedures Concerning Allegations of Misconduct in Research and Creative Activities,

17 Plagiarism in Research
“Misconduct means fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or any other practice that seriously deviates from practices commonly accepted in the discipline or in the academic and research communities generally in proposing, performing, reviewing, or reporting research and creative activities.” Source: MSU Procedures Concerning Allegations of Misconduct in Research and Creative Activities,

18 Plagiarism in Research
“Ohio University is investigating 44 possible cases of plagiarism by current and former engineering graduate students, all of which were discovered by a former graduate student who believes that professors there have fostered a culture of cheating.” T. Bartlett, Ohio U. Investigates Plagiarism Charges, Chronicle of Higher Education, 3/10/06 Wasley, P., Ohio U Revokes Degree for Plagiarism The Chronicle of Higher Education, 4/6/07 After Thomas Matrkas engineering thesis was rejected by his advisor at Ohio University, he went to the library to find out why. He found … 1 thesis with more than 50 plagiarized pages 1 thesis with 14 pages copied verbatim (including typos) 55 theses with possible plagiarism Outcomes: 1 degree revoked, 12 theses recommended for rewriting, 5 cases cleared, 22 cases determined to warrant no investigation, 16 cases awaiting hearing Wasley, P., Review Blasts Professors for Plagiarism by Graduate Students The Chronicle of Higher Education, 6/16/07 More outcomes … the hearing panel recommended Dismissal of the department chairperson Dismissal of a faculty member who approved 11 plagiarized theses Two-year probation for a third professor who was involved in 5 cases

19 Plagiarism in Research
Data from MSU Research Integrity Officer, 10/8/07 About plagiarism at MSU: Most frequent alleged misconduct Data probably reflect tip of the iceberg Affects faculty and grad students October 8, 2007 Report to The University Graduate Council The University Intellectual Integrity Officer Office of the President Michigan State University September 1, 2006 – August 31, 2007

20 Detecting Plagiarism Readers and reviewers Check references
Google 4-6 words (Harris, 2004) Plagiarism detection software (e.g., plagiarismchecker.com, plagiarismdetect.com) Clipart Source: Harris, 2004, citation: Harris, R. (2004). Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers, retrieved on 8/20/08 from

21 Preventing Plagiarism
Understand the difference between “common knowledge” and “original” ideas Do the right thing Follow your conscience Give credit, mark direct quotations, and use reference citations – use disciplinary standards! Seek help from your mentor Clipart Source: One rule of thumb indicates that facts found in at least six different sources are common knowledge. When in doubt either provide a reference citation, check with an expert, or both.

22 Possible Consequences
 scholarly reputation  self-concept  grades Dissertation not accepted Expulsion from university/no degree Expulsion from professional organizations Loss of job (GA/faculty) Clipart source:

23 MSU Resources MSU’s Procedures Concerning Allegations of Misconduct in Research and Creative Activities Plagiarism. Research Integrity Newsletter, MSU Grad School, Volume 9 (2), 2006 Plagiarism. PowerPoint presentation & notes

24 MSU Offices Research Integrity Officer http://www.rio.msu.edu/
Graduate School Ombudsman https://www.msu.edu/unit/ombud/

25 Sampling of Web Sites U.S. Office of Research Integrity resources about plagiarism misconduct.shtml URLs for several additional web sites about plagiarism are included in the notes below this slide Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices: A guide to ethical writing (Miquel Roig at St. Johns University Plagiarism and how to avoid it Avoiding plagiarism (OWL at Purdue) Plagiarism.org How to recognize plagiarism (School of Education at Indiana University) Defining and avoiding plagiarism (Council of Writing Program Administrators)

26 The End You are encouraged to engage in further discussions about plagiarism with your mentors and colleagues from your discipline


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