Presentation on theme: "“To teach is to learn twice.” ~Joseph Jeubert"— Presentation transcript:
1“To teach is to learn twice.” ~Joseph Jeubert Student PortfolioMeg CoyneApril 2001
2Index “I will never forget that while I can not teach my students everything they need to know, I can teach them how to be better learners.”IntroductionEducational ExperiencesEducational PhilosophiesInstructional StrategiesLearning EnvironmentsInstructional ResourcesAssessment Protocols~FormalAssessment Protocols~InformalTechnologyDeaf Education ResourcesRepresentative Instructional UnitReflectionsReference List
3A. IntroductionWhen did you decide to become a teacher of D/HH students? Both of my parents are teachers; I always knew I would become a teacher. During my Junior year of High School, I decided to major in Deaf Education.Why did you make that decision?I attended camp during the summers while growing up. My favorite part of camp was learning how to sign the “theme song”. This caused my great appreciation for sign language. Later, during high school, my choir performed one of the songs that I knew in sign. I taught another member of the choir the song, and we signed it while the rest of the choir sang it. One of the audience members (she was a teacher) told me “You have a natural ability for signing.” After mulling over her compliment for a few months, I decided to combine two things that I love: sign language and teaching.
4B. Educational Experiences Although there are many key attributes that a teacher should possess, there are a few that will either “make you” or “break you”. The following sections contain characteristics that I believe indicate whether a teacher is weak or strong.
5a. Teaching Characteristics of your “weakest” teachers a. Teaching Characteristics of your “weakest” teachers. When a teacher possess many weak characteristics, her students will suffer. Often a student is a direct result of his teacher. Many weak teachers produce weak students. These are the major characteristics of a weak teacher. My hope is that none of these adjectives will ever describe me.InconsistentBoringUnclearUnwilling to changeFocuses on weaknessesUnpreparedUnmotivatedUnavailableShows favoritismPoor classroom management skills
6b. Teaching Characteristics of your “strongest” teachers b. Teaching Characteristics of your “strongest” teachers. When a strong teacher is teaching, her students can’t help but learn. It is my hope that I will always strive to achieve all of these attributes.AvailableCreativeGoal-orientedFair & ConsistentClear & ConciseStimulatesindependent thinkingFlexibleOpen-mindedPassionateSeeks collaborationMakes learning funActive andenthusiastic
7c. Resulting Insights Concerning Effective Teaching. Many of the adjectives describing a weak teacher are direct opposites of those describing a strong teacher. It appears that a teacher will not have a mixture of both strong and weak characteristics. Many of the characteristics of the teaching type, whether weak or strong, seem correlated, going hand-in-hand.
8C. Educational Philosophies Every educator has essential beliefs and characteristics that drive their teaching methods. These philosophies permeate though their teaching style, classroom environment, and educational strategies. It is pertinent for teachers to support their beliefs. Without this evidence, there is nothing corroborating your beliefs as truth. Having research, statistics, and other professionals as resources adds credibility to your beliefs.The following is a culmination of my educational philosophies and beliefs.
9Educational Philosophies Cont… FacilitatorTeachers who facilitate their classrooms set up the environment so the behavior they desire will occur. An effective teacher is a facilitator; she models her strategies, is student-centered, and creates a learning environment for her students.“Don’t be the sage on the stage, but the guide on the side” (Dr. H. Johnson, October, 2000)
10Educational Philosophies Cont… MentoringMentoring is an important aspect in the field of education. Master teachers sharing their experience and guidance helps young teachers develop into successful and professional educators. Effective mentoring involves willingness to learn, careful listening, and motivation to succeed.“Look at the experience of others who have gone before you. They are there to offer comfort as well as guidance.” (Caruana, pg. 25)
11Educational Philosophies Cont… Student-Centered TopicsAn effective teacher respects her students’ interests and builds on them. The more student-centered the topic, the more motivated the students, which causes more efficient and active learning. It is important to follow the students’ lead. The more the students like the topic, the more willing they are to learn. Topics must be relevant to students’ lives to keep their interest.I believe teachers should incorporate students’ interests into their curriculum. (Dworkin, 1959, pg 29)
12Educational Philosophies Cont… AssessmentThe true success of education is not a test score, but how much knowledge has actually been aquired. A master teacher utilizes many means (teacher-made tests, portfolios, observations, etc.) to assess her students’ knowledge. An effective teacher not only compares her students against other children, but also against themselves.I believe students' comprehension should be assessed by both formal and informal methods. (Luetke-Sthlman and Luckner pg 320)
13Educational Philosophies Cont… ReflectionA master teacher reflects on her teaching experiences, continually striving to make her teaching better. An effective teacher is consistently refining and build her lessons to best help her students.I believe teachers should find ways to improve themselves as educators. (Stigler and Hiebert, 1997 pg 21)I believe that reflection is an essential occurrence which takes place at key points throughout teaching. (FoxFile Teacher Outreach Core Principles Aug 97)
14Educational Philosophies Cont… Parent-Teacher RelationshipsMost often parents and teachers have a distant relationship, feeling the only commonality between them is the student. Master teachers break away from this thinking and strive to create a positive relationship with their students’ parents. This is often done by sending home positive notes to parents, making encouraging phone calls, keeping the parents informed of progress, and conveying an approachable attitude.“Be gracious and understanding in dealing with parents, keeping in mind that they are entrusting you with their most treasured gifts.” (Caurana, pg 44)
15Educational Philosophies Cont… TeachingA master teacher challenges her students, while providing stimulating experiences, and setting high expectations. It is a teacher’s responsibility to require her students to do their best. This teacher motivates her students to succeed.I believe it is essential for a teacher to focus on helping students to use their minds well. (Ten Common Principles-OCES Fall 98)
16Educational Philosophies Cont… ThinkingA master teacher’s goal is for her students to possess a high level of thinking. This is accomplished when students are able to explain and expound on a subject. An effective teacher provides such opportunities to her students.I believe when students engage each other in “intellectual discourse”, they truly grasp a concept. (Nadine Goodman-OCES Fall 98)
17Educational Philosophies Cont… MotivationMaster teachers provide not only extrinsic, but also internal motivation for their students. They understand the importance of raising their student’s self-esteem and accomplishing the best they can for themselves.I believe a teacher should provide intrinsic motivation for their students. (Alfie Kohn, The Active Learner Vol 2 Iss 2)
18Educational Philosophies Cont… EncouragementMaster teachers create a positive classroom environment. This is easily established when the classroom’s inhabitants strive to be encouraging. A master teacher models this characteristic for her students; encouraging them in all they do. The child in an encouraging environment sees the teacher as an advocate, not an adversary. A master teacher offers encouragement in all circumstances and is such an advocate.“Encouragement is oxygen to the soul.” (Caruana, pg. 8)
19Educational Philosophies Cont… OrganizationClutter and disorganization can reek havoc on a classroom and students learning. Effective teachers are prepared and organized. It is pertinent that classrooms are orderly and that the teacher is organized. This enables the students to focus on their learning and keeps many distractions at bay.“Organization brings peace and makes room for creativity.” (Carauna, pg. 83)
20Educational Philosophies Cont… Every effective teacher has her own set of beliefs and philosophies of how to educate her students, handle her classroom, and impact her students. Having information corroborating with your beliefs is essential, as it validates your beliefs. The philosophies that teachers possess are what drive and direct their instruction; these beliefs make up who the teacher is and how the teacher educates. These beliefs impact every aspect of the teacher’s educating. This section of my portfolio contains my beliefs about effective teachers.
21D. Instructional Strategies It is extremely important for an educator to be informed about various instructional strategies and techniques. Having an accessible repertoire of techniques allows the teacher to be most effective and creative in educating her students. Teachers implement their philosophies through their instructional strategies. Often, these strategies evidence educational philosophies, as they are usually the philosophies put into practice. This section of my portfolio includes what I believe to be some of the most important instructional strategies.
22Instructional Strategies Cont… SignalsBecause I believe in student-centered teaching, I believe teachers should be guided by their students’ behaviors. It is important for teachers to observe their surroundings. Teachers must be aware of their students’ facial expressions, body language, and other signals sent. A teacher must continuously monitor her students’ behaviors, to best exemplify learning. Since this strategy Is guided by the students’ behaviors, it is directly linked to student-centered teaching.“Teachers look for signals from their learners so that they may facilitate understanding.” (Orlich, 2001 pg 54)
23Instructional Strategies Cont… MonitorI believe teacher’s challenging students to think for themselves is the key to their learning in-depthly; it is pertinent for teachers to monitor their students’, continually observing and prodding for forward progress. Constant monitoring of students’ achievements is pertinent for effective teachers. A master teacher is always checking her students’ knowledge. It is important for a teacher to monitor their students’ learning. There are many ways for teachers to monitor and assess their students’ achievements.“Be aware of the progress your students are making…continually monitor students’ progress.” (Overton, 2000, pg 4)
24Instructional Strategies Cont… StoriesEffective educators utilize many teaching methods other than lecture. Many master teachers use stories to catch the students’ attention and provide them with background knowledge or experience. As stories are a large part of Deaf Culture, they are quite appropriate in a Deaf Education classroom. Master teachers create a situation the students can identify with and learn from, stories are often the vehicle for such a task.“Sharing stories with children…enables adults to provide models of interaction and of the stylized uses of language in literature.” (Reif and Conway, 1995, pg 28)
25Instructional Strategies Cont… Direct ExperienceMaster teachers provide many experiences for their students; these experiences give students a background, as well as, help them generalize the information they are acquiring. These experiences, whether visual, smell, auditory, or hands-on all greatly contribute to the student’s learning experience. Master teachers facilitate their students’ learning, creating situations, backgrounds, and experiences for their students to learn from.“Experiential learning is likely to bring success…direct experience is essential for the development of important cognitive skills.” (Williams, 1983, pg 169)
26Instructional Strategies Cont… AssessmentMaster teachers utilize a variance of techniques regarding assessment. They are aware that students’ understanding, knowledge, and progress should be evaluated in many different ways. This strategy is easily incorporated into the effective teacher’s classroom.“Portfolios are better than tests.” (Student, Center for Collaborative Education, 2000)
27Instructional Strategies Cont… Discovery LearningBecause I believe master teachers facilitate and provide their students with many opportunities to increase their knowledge. Students better understand concepts and ideas when they are able to discover and assimilate them on their own. This process allows students to direct their own learning, which causes a more meaningful learning experience. An effective teacher causes her students to think for themselves.“Learners construct knowledge from their own thoughts, activities, and experiences.” (Orlich, 20001, pg 227)
28Instructional Strategies Cont… Role-modelsIt is important for students (both deaf and hearing) to have role-models to look up to. Deaf students should have access to Deaf adult role models, who can model appropriate behaviors, language, linguistics, and culture for them. The students should also have English role-models, so they may learn and experience correct written English and grammar. These role-models show the students appropriate qualities and behaviors, while offering encouragement, support, and friendship.“Access to positive role-models can promote self-determination…[and can also] help students understand and value the skills and qualities they bring to school and learn to respect the individuality of others.” (Salend, 2001, pg 222)
29Instructional Strategies Cont… Inquiry-Based LearningMaster teachers understand the importance of teaching their students thinking skills. This is best accomplished by incorporating an inquiry-based teaching strategy. This helps students efficiently acquire effective thinking skills. These skills in turn help the learner generalize the new information.“…an inquiry-based teaching strategy will greatly facilitate your teaching of thinking skills.” (Orlich, 2001, pg 319)
30Instructional Strategies Cont… GamesMaster teachers know that incorporating games into the curriculum enhances students’ learning experiences and enables them to generalize their information. Games are easily incorporated into the educational experience, making it stimulating and fun. Students are provided an opportunity to practice, learn, and generalize information.“Games are great fun; but they are also a learning experience.” (Williams, 1983, pg 178)
31Instructional Strategies Cont… Dialogue journalsMaster teachers utilize teaching methods that will be natural, fun, useful, individualized, and effective. Dialogue journals is a teaching technique that offers students fun, individualized learning, without their knowing it. Dialogue journals function not only as a way for teachers to communicate with their students, but observe, model, and facilitate written language. These journals are personal and student-centered, which keeps the students engaged.“Dialogue journals are a natural way to involve students in functional, meaningful reading and writing.” (Bailes, 1986)
32Instructional Strategies Cont… Learning CentersStudents need to experience learning in a hands-on manner. Often learning centers are the best way for this type of learning to occur. Students are aware of what is expected while at each particular center, and the learning centers often keep them focused on their topic. A master teacher incorporates these centers into her classroom.Providing learning centers “are particularly important for students who have difficulty with verbal encoding processes because…they can interact with the phenomena they’re studying by using their senses to gather and manipulate information nonverbally.” (Williams, 1983, pg 34)
33Instructional Strategies Cont… MaterialsMaster teachers allow students to create many of their own materials. This strategy enables the students to internalize what they are learning as well as learn about its importance. Allowing students to create their own materials helps them become more involved with their learning and more motivated to actively participate.“I have found that an important strategy to use in your classroom is letting students create their own materials.” (Debbie Sly, classroom presentation, February 21, 2001).
34Instructional Strategies Cont… Vocabulary WordsIt is difficult for educators to teach vocabulary words to their deaf students, as deaf students generally memorize the spelling and meaning of the words, without internalizing the concept. Master teachers have learned that vocabulary must be taught in a fun, yet authentic and relevant way. Often, allowing students to choose their own vocabulary words makes it a more meaningful and purposeful experience for the student.“When teaching vocabulary, you must start with the concept…memorizing lists are not always that helpful; memorization is not internalization.” (Dr. Pamela Luft, Lecture, April 16, 2001)
35Instructional Strategies Cont… Communication LogsMaster teachers understand the importance of open and honest parent-teacher communication. This is easily incorporated into a classroom when the teacher sends daily, or weekly logs home to the parents. These logs keep the parents informed of their student’s current homework, tests, progress, as well as classroom happenings. It is also an effective way for teachers to be aware of the students’ home lives and other situations that can impact their learning.“Parent and teacher communication journals are a good idea to help you deal with families and involve parents into your classroom however, they are hard to do daily.” (Class notes, April 16, 2001)
36Instructional Strategies Cont… Deaf Culture ActivitiesMany Deaf children participate in little interaction with the Deaf Community or Deaf adults other than in your classroom. It is essential for master teachers to make such opportunities available for her students. Allowing students to go on field trips to participate in the Deaf Community’s activities and learn about their culture is a necessary component of an effective Deaf educator.“Take your students on field trips into the Deaf Community and activities so they can learn about their culture.” (Miss Kennedy, Class Presentation, February 21, 2001)
37Instructional Strategies Cont… Physical MovementA master teacher realizes the limited attention span of her students. She makes accommodations for this short amount of time by modifying her teaching to fit their learning level. This is easily done by planning times for physical movement. Effective teachers structure their teaching day by allowing the students to move around (and become tired) then having them take their seats and listen/learn (while they rest). This strategy works with the students’ learning styles and attention spans.“Provide students with opportunities to get out of their seats and move around. Ask them for help watering plants, or passing out papers.” (Cathy Wilson, Class Presentation, April, 2001)
38Instructional Strategies Cont… Teachable MomentsVery often students stray off the topic during a lesson. Many times, the topic they have begun talking about is another learning experience. Master teachers utilize this topic shift, and obvious interest shift, as a “teachable moment”, one where they are no longer utilizing the lessons they had planned, but are following their students’ interest and lead and teaching off of that. When incorporated with care into a classroom, this strategy is highly effective; as it incorporates the students’ learning desires and flexibility into the day’s lessons.“Sometimes students get off track, but you know they need to know more information about what they are talking about, so you decide to change your lesson—in the middle of the lesson—and teach them about that instead. Sometimes it’s best to follow their interest.” (Gary Hand, personal communication, March 26, 2001)
39Instructional Strategies Cont… Although it is necessary for a teacher to have many successful strategies available, it is important to be flexible and open. A teacher must be willing to use varying techniques, and use what works best for her students. Many instructional strategies are the classroom actualization of the teachers educational philosophies. Many of my philosophies are encumbered in my instructional strategies, as the two are quite interrelated.
40E. Learning Environment It is very important to create an environment conducive for learning. Specific environmental factors directly relate to students’ attention, mood, and learning abilities. An effective teacher is aware of such factors and works to create a stimulating learning environment for her students. Master teachers develop learning environments for their students based upon their personal beliefs and teaching strategies. The learning environments contained in this section are directly linked with my educational philosophies as well as the teaching strategies and styles I am comfortable with.
41Learning Environment Cont… ComfortMaster teachers realize the impact the environment makes upon their students. They know it is essential their students feel safe and comfortable in the classroom. They know the importance of establishing an environment that allows students to feel free from judgment and fear, and stimulates thinking.“The impact of the environment [is directly related to] the student’s learning ability.” (Overton, 2000, pg 356)
42Learning Environment Cont… CultureMaster teachers attempt to make their classrooms as culture friendly and enhancing as possible. It is important for teachers to have classrooms which encourage students to embrace their culture, as this will help them define their identity.“[Educators] need to help deaf students discover their heritage—to show them the richness of the culture, language, history, and accomplishments of deaf people.” (Miller-Nomeland, 1993, pg 3)
43Learning Environment Cont… LanguageMaster teachers ensure that the language used in their classroom is conducive to learning. They desire for their students to function at the highest level possible. They understand what must occur for this to be achieved. Teachers must teach in a manner or language their students can understand.“The greatest hope for reform of Deaf Education lies in ensuring that teacher and student have a shared fluent natural language at their command for conducting learning.” (Lane et all, 1996, pg 292)
44Learning Environment Cont… TechnologyIn today’s world, technology is rapidly growing. Using such instruments will enhance all curriculum areas, creating many otherwise impossible experiences for students.“All children can learn, and computers, creatively applied, can serve as powerful tools of change to help students improve academic performance and take greater control over their thinking.” (Gooden, 1996, pg xxiv)
45Learning Environment Cont… Learning CentersIt is important that specific areas are developed for students to work on particular tasks. These centers prod students to pay more attention to their work and keep them focused. The use of learning centers greatly inhibits students’ availability to become distracted.Learning “centers contain meaningful, and purposeful activities that students can work at in small groups…that can be used to focus particular units.” (Tompkins, 1998, pg 63)
46Learning Environment Cont… Wait TimeMaster teachers allow a period of time, wait time, between asking questions and their students’ answering them. This allotted time frame enables students to form their thoughts, which results in more in-depth thinking, answers, and learning. When students are given ample time to think about their answer, they are able to understand the topic more fully.“Wait time is essential for thoughtful student responses…the use of wait time provides many educational benefits…increased complexity of answers and improved reasoning.” (Orlich, 2001, pg )
47Learning Environment Cont… Classroom ManagementEffective teachers are able to maintain control of their classroom at all times. They establish rules and schedules, effectively and consistently follow through with consequences. Master teachers design a classroom environment which enables students’ positive behaviors.“These [classroom management] techniques should be incorporated into an overall instructional and classroom management plan…in which expectations and consequences are are communicated and followed through.” (Heward, 1996, pg )
48Learning Environment Cont… Democratic SettingMaster teachers empower their students with a sense of classroom ownership. By allowing students to feel like they contribute to their classroom, they will be more responsible and active, which in turn will lead to more the students being more involved in their learning. An effective teacher creates this environment for her students.“Making the classroom a democratic setting, where everyone feels a responsibility to contribute is a central goal of transformative pedagogy. (Hooks,1994, pg 39)
49Learning Environment Cont… IndividualityMaster teachers understand the necessity for their students to be individuals. They know that each student in the class has his/her own personality and learning style. Effective teachers foster and utilize these differences to help create a comfortable learning environment, where their students can excel academically, socially, and individually.“Allow individuality in your students. Only then will they discover their true potential.” (Caruana, pg 70)
50Learning Environment Cont… RulesMaster teachers understand the rules behind rules. The most effective classroom guidelines are those that are made collaboratively between the teacher and students. Rules should be phrased in a positive manner and should not be overwhelming. Effective teachers are consistent in their management of broken rules and teach students to be accountable for their actions.“Positively stated rules that are established at the beginning of the school year with input from the students are usually more successful in helping students control their behavior than several negative rules already posted by the teacher when the students arrive.” (Vallercorsa, 2000, pg 36)
51Learning Environment Cont… ArrangementThe physical arrangement of your classroom is directly related to your students’ participation, attention, and attitude. Master teachers establish a classroom environment that is organized, clutter-free, and encourages appropriate classroom behavior.“The organization of physical space is critical. The organization for he physical space of a classroom can enhance or impede student learning and behavior. Careful organization and arrangement of the classroom can decrease noise and disruption, and increase students’ time on task.” (Vallecorsa, 2000, pg 92)
52Learning Environment Cont… DecorationsMaster teachers recognize the necessity of establishing a comfortable classroom. Lining the walls with cheery colorful decorations helps establish a positive classroom atmosphere. Effective teachers create print rich environments by decorating the walls of their classroom with captioned pictures, word walls, labels, bulletin boards, posters, and other materials.“It is important to create a print rich environment, where there is a lot of print available. This helps implement literacy.” (Dr. Luft, Lecture, February 26, 2001)
53Learning Environment Cont… SoundAs many students are easily distracted by noise, effective teachers have learned to utilize sound muffling devices in their classrooms. Many master teachers fill their rooms with materials that help soak up sound, so it is less of a distraction. Hanging cloth material on the walls, carpeting the classroom, installing soft ceiling tiles are all methods that have been implemented to help absorb sound.“Try to put sound absorbing materials in your classroom; sounds quickly get students off track.” (Debbie Sly, Classroom Presentation, February 21, 2001)
54Learning Environment Cont… This section of my portfolio contains descriptions of what I believe are effective learning environments. These learning environments are essential and directly correlated with my educational philosophies and instructional strategies. These environments would be the ideal situations to implement my teaching strategies. My hope is that the environments I will create in my classroom will be useful in implementing my educational philosophies and instructional strategies. It is essential that teachers make their classrooms as conducive to learning as possible. The establishment of effective classroom environments directly influences students’ learning abilities. Students who feel better, learn better.
55F. Instructional Resources In this section, you will find links to organizations and standards that my classmates and I have found to be extremely beneficial. I have also included links to instructional resources and curricular work that has been carried out by current and previous Deaf Education majors at Kent State University. These links cover the academic areas of Science, Reading, Health, and History, and Deaf Culture.
56a. National Organizations Science OrganizationsAmerican Association for the Advancement of ScienceThe Eisenhower National ClearinghouseNational Science Teachers’ AssociationNational Science FoundationNational Council of Teachers of MathematicsHistory Organizations National History Organizations
57National Organizations Cont… Health OrganizationsSIECUSAmerican Social Health AssociationReading OrganizationsInternational Reading Association (IRA)The National Association for the Education of Young ChildrenNational Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)National Institute for Literacy
58b. National Standards Science Standards National Science Education StandardsReading StandardsInternational Reading AssociationMath StandardsNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics
59National Standards Cont… History StandardsNational History StandardsHealth StandardsAmerican Social Health AssociationSexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S.
60c. Curricular Resources Math (K-3)Science (4-6)Deaf StudiesIdentity (3-6)American Deaf Culture (1-4)American Sign Language (1-2)
61Curricular Resources Cont… American Sign Language (3-4)Communication (1-4)History (1-4)Social Change (1&3)Social Change (2&4)
62Instructional Resources Cont… This section of my portfolio contains links to national organizations and standards, as well as deaf education curriculum resources already established. Many of these links were created or found by my past and present peers. A master teacher’s educational philosophies should co-inside with national organizations and standards, as both have a common goal; the student to reach maximum potential.
63G. Assessment Protocols When a students’ progress has been continually monitored, it is easy for a teacher to access and observe progress. It is pertinent that master teachers use creativity, individuality, and variety when learning, teaching, and assessing. I believe teachers must use various methods of assessment; the primary mode should be one in which the child is comfortable and excels. I believe assessment should be clear and concise, testing only over what the teacher has taught, and depict the student’s achievements accurately. I believe a students should not be compared to his/her peers, but to himself. His progress should be evaluated according to his capabilities, not someone else’s.
64a. Formal Assessment Protocols There are several tests available to professionals who wish to assess their students’ progress. Formal assessments have been standardized, enabling teachers to compare their students’ results with national averages of other students the same age, or grade. Because formal assessments have been standardized, their results are usually more reliable and valid. There are many formal, standardized assessment tests, covering a broad range of subjects, across the curriculum.
65Formal Assessment Protocols Cont… Achievement TestsAchievement tests have been designed to measure what students have learned. These tests are able to identify students’ strengths and weaknesses, as well as, what the student has learned and remembered. These tests are standardized, thus they are often utilized to compare students’ performances.“Achievement tests measure academic progress; they see what the student has retained in curriculum.” (Overton, 2000, pg 182)
66Formal Assessment Protocols Cont… Aptitude TestsAptitude tests contain items that measure what a student has retained. They are also designed to indicate how much the student will learn in the future. These tests are believed to indicate a students strengths in a particular area, as well as future potential.“Aptitude tests are made to measure strength, talent, and ability in a particuliar area or domain.” (Overton, 2000, pg 183)
67Formal Assessment Protocols Cont… Norm-Referenced TestsNorm-Referenced tests are utilized to measure students’ academic achievements. When a professional is able to compare a student’s scores to others, they are better able to determine if the student is performing as expected for his age or grade.Norm-Referenced tests have been designed to compare individual students with national averages, or norms of expectancy.“Overton, 2000, pg 184)
68Formal Assessment Protocols Cont… There are now a few formal assessment tests that have been specifically designed or normed for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Such tests are not always utilized, however, they are becoming more readily available. These are a few of the tests that are available.Metropolitan SAT for D/HHSAT-HIWISC-RSAT-9AIMSMMPIMacginite Reading Test
69Formal Assessment Protocols Cont… Formal assessments are standardized, making them more credible and reliable; when distributed correctly, this is true. These tests not only measure educational performance, but are also able to diagnose specific learning weaknesses and identify strengths. Formal assessment tests have been developed to measure a specific areas of cognitive, linguistic, or academic abilities. However, many formal assessments have not been normed for the deaf and their results are inaccurate and unreliable in assessing deaf students true abilities, strengths, and weaknesses. For this reason, most deaf educators choose to assess their students using informal assessments.
70b. Informal Assessment Protocols Teachers often need to utilize assessment protocols that are more specialized to their specific curriculum and students. Such assessments are valuable for providing information regarding planning and intervention. These tests assist the teacher in assessing her students’ knowledge, as they are linked to the classroom curriculum she is teaching. Informal assessment enables the teacher to track progress on a frequent basis; thus the teacher is able to instruct and intervene much more accurately. Because informal assessments use multiple approaches, they are able to “capture a more comprehensive and accurate picture of a child’s learning.” (French, 1999, pg 68)
71Informal Assessment Protocols Cont… Criterion-Related assessmentCriterion-Related assessment compares a student’s performance to a given criteria, skill, task, or objective. Teachers utilize criterion-related assessments to assess whether their students can correctly, completely, and consistently perform a specific task.Criterion-related assessments are formulated “when items of an assessment instrument are related to meeting objectives or passing skill mastery objectives.” (Overton, 2000, pg 271)
72Informal Assessment Protocols Cont… PortfoliosA portfolio is a collection of a student’s work. It provides a holistic view of the student’s strengths and weaknesses across the curriculum. Often teachers utilize portfolios to track students’ progress over time. Teachers are able to compare many works, not only test scores, over a long period of time. Through using portfolios, teachers are able to compare the student to himself.“Portfolio assessment should be authentic and valid, encompassing the whole child, and be continuous over time.” (Overton, 2000, pg 306)
73Informal Assessment Protocols Cont… Interviews and SurveysInterviews and surveys are used by master teachers to involve the student in their assessment process. These informal assessments enable the students to assess what they know about themselves. They often involve open-ended questions that, when answered, enable the teacher to better understand the students’ thought processes and strategies used.“Interviews and surveys are most effective with students who can reflect on their knowledge and competencies. They promote reflective thinking by suggesting to students that they examine the characteristics of their learning.” (French, 1999, pg 69)
74Informal Assessment Protocols Cont… ChecklistsChecklists are used by teachers for each individual student. They contain a list of subskills; once these subskills have been accomplished, the student has mastered the skill or task. Utilizing a checklist enables the teacher to have an in-depth look at the student’s abilities, thus the teacher is able to see the student’s’ areas of strength, as well as, weakness.“Checklists are lists of academic or behavioral skills that must be mastered by the student.” (Overton, 2000, pg 292)
75Informal Assessment Protocols Cont… Anecdotal RecordsAnecdotal records are the teacher’s observations of the student behaviors, processes, actions, development, and products. Master teachers often take notes on their students’ abilities and inabilities so they may compare the student’s weekly performance against the weeks prior to see how well the student is progressing. This type of assessment enables the teacher to keep a constant analysis of the student.“Anecdotal records can examine all types of learning represented in all areas of development. They can examine learning from an “open-ended” perspective and also be used to “check-up”, or observe children with a specific criteria in mind. (French, 1999, pg 69)
76Informal Assessment Protocols Cont… Teacher-made testsTeachers often develop their own tests, as this enables them to directly link their assessment to their curriculum. Through these teacher-made tests, teachers are better able to accurately assess what their students are learning, as well as how they are teaching.“Using teacher-made assessment may provide better information about student achievement levels and mastery of academic objectives.” (Overton, 2000, pg 279)
77Informal Assessment Protocols Cont… Informal assessments have not been norm-referenced or standardized. Informal assessments are utilized most often by teachers, as they are personalized to the students and the curriculum. Informal assessments enable teachers to test over what has been taught; they assist the teacher in evaluating what the students have learned from their school instruction. I believe that informal assessment methods are often more appropriate than formal tests, as they have been personally formulated for the students.
78H. TechnologyIt is pertinent that teachers of the 21st century master technology. Incorporating a diverse amount of technology into the classroom will not only enhance the teacher’s teaching, but also the learner’s learning. Master teachers must embrace this resource and use it throughout their curriculum.
79Technology Cont… Email has taken the “Pen-Pal” idea to a new level. Students are able to quickly and efficiently write letters, send pictures, and learn about different cultures via . Students are able to work on their reading, writing, spelling, and language by utilizing .“Our aim is to promote international friendship and cultural understanding.” (Bob Carroll, World Pen-Pals)
80Technology Cont… Computers Using computers to enrich your classroom is becoming an everyday occurrence. Computers make a whole new world available to your student’s fingertips. Lessons are easily enhanced, drill and practice becomes fun; when using the computer, students are continually learning without knowing it.“Programs [utilizing] computer aided instruction, CAI,…will have good results.” (Moores, 1996, pg 309)
81Technology Cont… Digital Cameras and Scanners Teachers who incorporate pictures into their curriculum help students visually grasp concepts. Utilizing digital cameras, teachers are able to take pictures of their classroom, students, and projects. They can then post these pictures on the internet or print them out. This enables the students to visually track their activities and progress.“I love when teachers take pictures and put them on the website or bulletin board. You know other people will see your work, so you are motivated to do your best.” (Jonathan Coyne, Solon High School student)
82Technology Cont… Television, VCR, DVD Students learn more when they care about the subject they are learning. Teachers who can bring the subject to life, and show its importance pique their students’ interest, which helps them remember. Giving students the opportunity to connect with what they are learning occurs easily by utilizing video and movie equipment.“Content-rich entertainment videos…provide an effective alternative for…education.” (T. Cavanaugh’s Dissertation, 1998)
83Technology Cont… Computer-Assisted Note-taking (CAN) Teachers can incorporate technology and note-taking in their classroom simultaneously. CAN is very beneficial for all students, not just those who are visual learners. Utilizing CAN in the classroom helps students become better note-takers, as well as, helps them follow along with lecture or discussion.“This technology enables hearing-impaired students to have equal access to the material presented…enabling them to participate fully in all ongoing classroom activities.” (Mayfield Auditory-Oral Program Brochure.)
84Technology Cont… FM Systems Often deaf and hard of hearing students utilize technological means for amplification. Often they use sound fields, personal or classroom FM systems, auditory trainers, or hearing aides. These technologies increase the students hearing abilities. These assistive listening devices are often beneficial in the classroom setting.“Assistive listening devices, such as infrared (IR), frequency modulation (FM), or induction coupling aid students with hearing impairment in understanding more during classroom settings.” (Salend, 2000, pg 306)
85Technology Cont…TTYTTY’s in the classroom prove to be effective technological teaching tools. Teachers are able to teach their students proper TTY etiquette, lingo, abbreviations, protocols, and techniques. This is a necessity for students who will rely on it to speak on the telephone; it is also a great way for teacher to help students learn about the Deaf Culture.It is pertinent for teachers to “develop skills [that are] needed to use a TTY for communication.” (Deaf Studies Curriculum Guide, 1993, pg 133)
86Technology Cont…Using various means of technology in the classroom is very beneficial to students. Any experiences that a teacher can make to help her students better understand their material will help them become better learns. Master teachers use and incorporate many different means of technology in their classrooms daily.
87I. Deaf Education Resources Often teachers struggle to find information, resources, supplemental material, and any other beneficial aid. I believe that it is pertinent for teacher of the deaf to not only be aware, but knowledgeable about all areas of deafness, even if it doesn’t appear to relate to their deaf students. This section of my portfolio contains links that I as a (future) educator will use to continue my education and knowledge about all aspects of deafness, as well as resources I will provide to parents, students, or any other inquiring person.
88Deaf Education Resources Cont… Ohio Resource Center on DeafnessThis center was established to help provide resources about deafness to both the deaf and hearing.Deaf Services CenterInformation received from the Ohio Deaf Fair. ( ) The purpose of this center is to serve and inform both the deaf and hearing communities.SCCD Deaf Service CenterInformation received from the Ohio Deaf Fair. ( )The mission of this center is to provide the Deaf and hard of hearing community with services that promote empowerment and equal access.
89Deaf Education Resources Cont… AccessInformation received from the Ohio Deaf Fair. ( CARE)The purpose of NetCare Access is to connect deaf and hard of hearing people to mental health, drug, and alcohol crisis and assessment services.Ohio Relay ServiceInformation received from the Ohio Deaf Fair. ( )The purpose of the relay is to provide telecommunication access to deaf and hearing people .DeafLinkInformation received from the Ohio Deaf Fair. ( V)The purpose of DeafLink is to provide communication accessBetween both the deaf and the hearing.
90Deaf Education Resources Cont… Aids Education/Services for the DeafInformation received from the Ohio Deaf Fair. ( )The purpose of this program is to train staff who is fluent in ASL to answer questions regarding HIV/AIDS.Family Services, Inc. Community Services for the DeafInformation received from the Ohio Deaf Fair. ( )The purpose of this center is to provide services for and information about/to the deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing.Deaf Resource CenterInformation received from the Ohio Deaf Fair. ( )The purpose of this center is to provide information and services to the deaf and hard of hearing as well as hearing.
91Deaf Education Resources Cont… Deaf UnlimitedThe purpose of Deaf Unlimited is to provide all technological devices to help aid the deaf and hard of hearing.Gallaudet University LinkThe purpose of this newsletter is to inform any individual who is part of the deaf community.Silent News135 Gaither Dr,. Ste. F, Mount Laurel, NJThe world’s most popular newspaper of deaf and hard of hearing people.
92Deaf Education Resources Cont… Dawn Sign PressThe purpose of this publisher is to provide materials for parents, teachers, and interpreters.National Cued Speech AssociationThe purpose of this website is to inform individuals about the process of, use of, and success of cued speech.DeafEd.NetThe purpose of this website is to bridge the gap between those working with or parenting the deaf.
93Deaf Education Resources Cont… It is important for those involved with deaf education to be informed and knowledgeable about the different aspects that affect deaf education. This is a list of resources that are beneficial to anyone interested in becoming involved with the deaf community. It is pertinent that deaf educators, parents, and even friends know where to look and how to obtain necessary information about deafness.
94J. Representative Instructional Unit This unit has been designed to be used in a second grade classroom with students who are hard of hearing and have learning disabilities. This curriculum unit is in the academic subject area of math; the unit is on length and units of measurement. The students in the classroom where this unit was implemented, use spoken language as their primary means of communication, however sign language is used to help supplement their language needs.Many of my educational philosophies, instructional strategies, learning environments, and assessment protocols were implemented in this unit.
95Representative Instructional Unit Cont… This unit is comprised of hands-on activities, learning centers, and group work, which allow students the opportunity to obtain experiences through discovery learning. The teaching in this unit is student centered and student guided, which in turn facilitates more learning.This unit utilizes many methods to help accommodate students with a hearing loss and learning disability. Using visual aids, hand-outs, and transparencies help students who have written and receptive language deficits. Speaking slowly, clearly, and with less complex sentences also aids in comprehension. This lesson has been designed in an organized and structured fashion to help students continue to stay focused.
96Representative Instructional Unit Cont… This unit is student-centered and uses group work, which allows the students to experience their learning themselves. This unit involves much repetition, which allows many opportunities for the students to fully grasp the concept, as well as become familiar with the process. By using positive reinforcements and evaluative comments, the students are encouraged to ask questions and motivated to participate. Many of the philosophies, strategies, environments, and assessment protocols included in this portfolio were incorporated into this unit.
97Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Organization Academic Subject: MathUnit Objective: The students will estimate and measure length using standard units, inch units, and a 1-foot ruler. The students will be able to estimate, measure, and check lengths of measurement accurately nine out of ten times.Curriculum Materials: Inch rulers, homemade rulers, chalkboard, chalk,large paper, cardboard paper, pencils, paper, markers, crayons, unifix cubes, large and small paper clips, scissors, twenty-eight cents, candies in a jar, books, bookshelf, string, floor tile, journal books, computer key board, toilet paper rolls, my tennis shoes, tape recorder, bulletin board, two hundred 1 inch circles, picture of a gumball machine, scissors, glue, stapler, three envelopes, paper strips, markers, and test forms.
98Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Organization Cont… Number of Classes: EightLength of Classes: One hourNumber of Students in the Classes: EightLanguage Goal: The students will be able to increase their mathematical vocabulary lexicon in both recognition and recall.Cognitive Goal: The students will be able to identify when they are frustrated and will respond in an appropriate manner.
99Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design One Unit Segment: IntroductionLesson’s Academic Objectives: The students will be able to accurately identify the difference between small, medium, and large.Lesson’s Curriculum Materials: Chalkboard, colored-chalk, all of the materials in the classroom.
100Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design One Cont… Lesson’s Student Activities: In order for the teacher to assess the students’ prior knowledge of vocabulary words regarding length, she will send them on a scavenger hunt. The teacher will make columns on the chalkboard (each column is labeled: small, medium, large). Each student will first be looking for two small items around the class. When finished, the students will return to their desks with the two items. Then the students will look for two large items around the classroom. Again, when they finish, they and their items should return to their desks.
101Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design One Cont… Finally, the students will look for two items that are bigger than the small items AND smaller than their big items. When they have found those two items, they will return to their desk with the items. When the whole class has finished collecting all of their items, we will discuss their findings. They will tell the teacher which category their item is under (small, medium, or large) and the class will agree or disagree. Then the class will answer a few questions from the teacher. The first question is “How did you know this (large item) is bigger than this (small item)?” The second question is “What is it called when you look at two different items and compare them (the teacher will model this behavior)?”
102Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design One Cont… Lesson’s Student Evaluation: Evaluation will occur, by the teacher, during the entire class time. Evaluation will cover the students’ abilities to find the appropriate sizes, as well as, answer the questions correctly.Lesson’s Student Homework: The students will find and record two items at home that are small, two that are medium, and two that are large.
103Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Two Unit Segment: IntroductionLesson’s Academic Objective: The students will be able to recognize and recall the vocabulary words long and measure. The students will be able to provide two accurate reasons for measurement.Lesson’s Curriculum Materials: Chalkboard, chalk, large sheet of paper, markers, crayons.
104Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Two Cont… Lesson’s Student Activities: The students will be presented with the words length and measurement. They will generate definitions of those two words. When the class has agreed upon (an accurate) definition for each word, they will begin to brainstorm about the purposes of measurement. Their brainstorms will include, but are not limited to: Why do people measure? What jobs use measurement? What are different ways to measure? After the children have brainstormed their ideas (and the teacher has written them on the chalkboard), they will create a measurement poster. On the poster they will draw pictures and use words to describe the uses of measurement. When this poster is completed, they will hang it up in the measurement center.
105Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Two Cont… Lesson’s Student Evaluation: Evaluation will occur, by the teacher during the brainstorming exercises, based on the amount of participation of each student. The teacher will also evaluate the students on their ability to explain their brainstormed ideas, and their use of the words measure and long.Lesson’s Student Homework: The students will bring three objects from home that they would like to lend the measurement center.
106Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Three Unit Segment: ExplorationLesson’s Academic Objective: The students will be able to measure length using nonstandard units of measurement.Lesson’s Curriculum Materials: Classroom objects, unifix cubes, large and small paper clips.
107Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Three Cont… Lesson’s Student Activities: The students will be divided up into groups of two. Each group will pick a method of nonstandard measurement (their choices are unifix cubes, small paper clips, or large paper clips). They will then collect five different classroom objects from a pile that the teacher has pre-selected so they may measure the length of each object against their nonstandard unit of measurement. One student will do the measuring; the other will record the results. The students will switch jobs every other turn. When the students have finished measuring their objects, they will then discuss and compare their results. (Example: a math book may be 14 unifix cubes long, 16 small paper clips long, and 8 big paper clips long). The teacher will then pose the question “Why is it important to state which unit of measurement you measured with?” The students will discuss possible answers to this question.
108Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Three Cont… Lesson’s Student Evaluation: The students will be evaluated by their teacher based on their participation, the accuracy of their measurements, and their answers during the classroom discussions.Lesson’s Student Homework: The students will take home the nonstandard unit of measurement that they used during class and measure the length of their pillow, toothbrush, TV. remote, and a spoon.
109Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Four Unit Segment: ApplicationLesson’s Academic Objectives: The students will measure length using the standard unit of measurement, inches. The students will be able to recall the purpose of a ruler. The students will be able to identify how many inches are on a one-foot ruler.Lesson’s Curriculum Materials: Unifix cubes, cardboard paper, markers, crayons, pencil, ruler, scissors, and numerous classroom objects.
110Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Four Cont… Lesson’s Student Activities: The students will design their own ruler out of precut cardboard strips. They will measure out, using unifix cubes (one cube equals one inch), and make a mark every inch for twelve inches. After the students have made their rulers the teacher will pose the questions “How far apart are the marks you made on your ruler? How do you know? Are yours the same distance from you neighbor? Why is that important?” The students will then discuss their answers to these questions. The teacher will supervise their discussion, making sure that their answers are applicable and accurate. The students will then be divided up into groups of two to measure and record pre-selected classroom objects. Once they have finished, the students will reconvening and discuss their findings. Then the teacher will again ask the students why it is important that they all use the same unit of measurement.
111Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Four Cont… Lesson’s Student Evaluation: The evaluation will occur, by the teacher based on the students’ accuracy in making their rulers, in answering the teacher’s questions, in measuring their group’s objects, and in their classroom participation.Lesson’s Student Homework: The students will measure and record the length, using their new ruler, of their telephone, shoes, a picture frame, and a pencil.
112Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Five Unit Segment: Exploration and ApplicationLesson’s Academic Objective: The students will be able to identify guess and check as a problem solving strategy. The students will be able to demonstrate guess and check while solving problems. The students will be able to explain why guess and check is a problem solving strategy.Lesson’s Curriculum Materials: Twenty-eight cents, candies & jar, calendar, and books.
113Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Five Cont… Lesson’s Student Activities: Students will make guesses about what they will study for the day. They will guess how much money I have, how long another student can hold his breath, and how many candies are present in a jar. They will then test their guesses. The students will then discuss why it is important to guess before they answer questions. The students will then divide up into four sections (2 students per section). They will guess the answer to their sections question, then they will test their guess. When they have finished, they will switch to another group. In section one, they will guess and check how many steps it takes to walk to the door. In section two, they will guess and check how long they can hold their breath. In section three, they will guess and check how many days are left until spring break. In section four, they will guess and check how many books are on the bookshelf. Once all of the students have answered all of the questions, they will come back as a group and discuss their findings.
114Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Five Cont… Lesson’s Student Evaluation: Students will explain how the guess and check strategy can help them solve problems. Evaluation will occur, by the teacher, during their discussion time.Lesson’s Student Homework: Students will pick three problems at home that they would like to guess and check about.
115Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Six Unit Segment: Application and EvaluationLesson’s Academic Objective: Students will be able to guess the length of a line segment and check their guesses by measuring with a ruler with at least eighty five percent accuracy.Lesson’s Curriculum Materials: Rulers, string, book, pencil, floor tile, and paper.
116Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Six Cont… Lesson’s Student Activities: Students will make guesses about the length of certain objects. (Ex. How far they are from the door, the length of a string, person, book, and pencil.) They will then check their guesses by measuring these objects. Then the students will break up into groups of two (four groups total) and guess and check the length of the object in their section. Once they have guessed and checked the object in their group, they will move to the next section. Group one will guess and check the length of themselves. Group two will guess and check the length of a pencil. Group three will guess and check the length of the class rabbit, Sweetie. Group four will guess and check the length of their pinky fingers. When the students have guessed and checked each section, they will come back together and discuss their results.
117Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Six Cont… Lesson’s Student Evaluation: If the students’ results (after checking) are close to accurate, then they understand the concept. During their discussion, the teacher will check the students’ answers and their ability to accurately check their guesses.Lesson’s Student Homework: The students will guess and check the lengths of 4 objects (of their choice) at home. Extra Credit: Guess and check the length of your mom’s shoe.
118Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Seven Unit Segment: Application and EvaluationLesson’s Academic Objectives: The students will be able to accurately demonstrate the guess and check strategy while solving a problem. The students will be able to discuss and decide on a method to add gumballs to the machine.Lesson’s Curriculum Materials: Bulletin Board, two hundred 1-inch circles, picture of a gumball machine, scissors, glue, stapler, three envelopes, paper strips, markers.
119Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Seven Cont… Lesson’s Student Activities: The students will respond to the teacher’s question, “Who can guess what we’re going to do today?” After the teacher explains what the students will be doing, they will begin to make their bulletin board. The students will staple the empty gumball machine on the bulletin board. Then the teacher will explain to the students that they are to estimate how many gumballs will be needed to fill the machine. The teacher will then pose the question, “How many gumballs do you think it will take to fill-up this whole gumball machine?” The students will write their names and estimate on a sentence strip. Then the students will discuss and decide, as a class, how to fill up the machine. After they have made a decision, they will add the gumballs accordingly. The students will add the gumballs to the machine. They will see whose estimates were the most accurate and whose were not. As the gumball machine is not full yet, they will not know whose estimate was the closest.
120Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Seven Cont… Lesson’s Student Evaluation: The students will decide which method is the best for deciding how to fill-up the machine. They will also estimate near accurately. Evaluation will occur, by the teacher, during their discussion time.Lesson’s Student Homework: The students will study for their test tomorrow.
121Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Eight Unit Segment: EvaluationLesson’s Academic Objectives: The students will be able to follow the directions of this lesson. The students will be able to recognize and recall the meanings of the words: small, large, long, length, measure, estimate, guess, and test. The students will be able to accurately measure eighty five percent of the time, the lengths in standard and nonstandard units of specified objects. The students will be able to estimate and check their guesses of the length of specified objects with eighty five percent accuracy.Lesson’s Curriculum Materials: Rulers, pre-selected classroom objects, pencils, and test form.
122Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Eight Cont… Lesson’s Student Activities: The students will read and follow the directions on their test forms. They will first measure the length of their math book using small paper clips. Then they will measure the length of their journal book using the large paper clips. They will then measure the length of the one cupboard using unifix cubes. Then they will measure the length of a computer keyboard using the unifix cubes. They will then measure the length of a floor tile using their ruler. Then they will measure the length of a toilet paper roll using their ruler. They will then estimate the length of my tennis shoe. They will then measure my tennis shoe to see if their estimation was correct. They will then estimate the length of the tape recorder. Then they will measure the tape recorder to see if their estimation was correct. BONUS: Estimate the length of 15 unifix cubes.
123Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Lesson Design Eight Cont… Lesson’s Student Evaluation: The evaluation will occur by the teacher after the test forms have been turned in. If the students’ answers are very near accurate, then the student understands the materials. The teacher will watch while the students are taking the test to make sure none of the students are cheating. The teacher is using the bonus question to evaluate whether the students know that one unifix cube is equal to one inch. Estimations for the bonus question within an inch and a half will be accepted.Lesson’s Student Homework: There is no homework, as the students have just taken a test.
124Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Feedback Evaluation of Instruction: The lessons that were taught went very well. However, improvement is needed in two key areas. “Objectives should be clearly measurable…The objectives for math were clearly met after you rewrote a bit.” As well as, the teacher must also spend a few minutes at the beginning of each class reviewing what was taught and learned the previous day and answering questions the students may have. Overall, evaluation of instruction is earns a three and a half.Assessment of D/HH students’ performance: In most of the lessons the students were able to achieve the teacher’s objectives. They were able to demonstrate the appropriate academic behaviors, as well as, explain their thoughts and reasoning. The only problem the students had was turning in their homework from the night before. Rarely did this occur; none of the students consistently turned in their homework. Overall evaluation of assessment of D/HH students’ performance earns a three.
125Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Feedback Cont… Selection of Instructional Strategies to match students’ learning needs: “The [practicum] student showed advanced levels of judgment in choice of instructional approach, materials, and media to accomplish teaching goals. Skill of questioning and explaining is excellent.” Overall evaluation of the selection of instructional strategies to match students’ learning needs earns a four.Effective use of technology: There was little technology used in these lessons; however, all lessons were hands-on and student centered. Overall, effective use of technology earns a two.Effective sequencing of instruction: “[Practicum student] set up the task before you taught…you explained exactly what you wanted done. You flow with the children; they are comfortable with you and your teaching style.” Overall evaluation of effectiveness of sequencing of instruction earns a four.
126Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Feedback Cont… Effective use of instructional time: Although the “teaching” aspect of the lesson was completed on time, the students often needed an extra five minutes to complete their activities. If the practicum student would have had more control during the transition time, the students would have more time to complete their work. Overall evaluation of effective use of instructional time earns a three and a half.Focus upon assisting students to become more effective learners: The predominant number of teaching and activities in this lesson enabled the students to learn for themselves through experience. This lesson is intended for the teacher to facilitate learning and the students to be active participants in their learning. Overall, the focus upon assisting students to become more effective learners earns a four.
127Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Feedback Cont… Effective rapport with and management of students: The teacher’s rapport with the students is quite high. “You flow with the children. They are comfortable with you and your teaching style…You must be firmer with the children. They will love you even after you discipline them…You explained exactly what you wanted done, as far as behavior…Classroom atmosphere, rapport with students, and classroom control are all excellent. Ability to secure participation is good. You are especially proficient in dealing with behavior problems. There has been much improvement.” Overall evaluation of rapport with students earns a four; management of students earns a three.Effective Use/Integration of Support Services: The practicum student’s only utilization of support services was talking with her classmates and practicum teacher. She did not speak with any aides, therapists, or other support staff when planning this unit. Overall evaluation of effective use and integration of support services earns a one.
128Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Feedback Cont… Effective Use of Student Initiated/Centered Learning Experiences: All of the lessons, activities, teaching, and experiences in this lesson were designed to be student centered, hands-on, utilize cooperative and group work, and build the students’ learning experiences. Overall evaluation of the effective use of student initiated and centered learning experiences earns a four.Effective Communication with Students: “The [practicum] student exceeds beginning-advanced abilities to communicate to students and meet their unique communication needs…the [practicum] student has excellent speech and signing abilities.” Overall evaluation of the effectiveness of communication with the students earns a four.
129Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Feedback Cont… Effective Design of Instruction to Encourage Group Learning: All of the activities in this unit were designed to facilitate cooperative learning and group work. Overall effectiveness of the design of the instruction to encourage group learning earns a four.Effective Classroom Routines: The practicum student has builds an “excellent class atmosphere” As well as, has “excellent classroom control.” However, the practicum student was not familiar with all of the classroom routines and was occasionally reminded by the students what procedure they normally do next. Overall effective classroom routines earns a three and a half.
130Representative Instructional Unit Cont… Unit Feedback Cont… Design Instruction to Enhance and Increase Students’ Social Participation in Family, School, and Community: All of the lessons utilize group work, which in turn facilitates social interaction within the classroom. Many of the homework assignments called for parent and family participation. However, the lessons did not incorporate the community. Overall evaluation of the design of instruction to enhance and increase students’ social participation in family, school, and community earns a three and a half.
131K. ReflectionsThrough completing this portfolio project, I have learned of the importance substantiating your claims. Having corroborating information not only validates what you have said, but it also gives it more credibility. By having evidence of what you have stated, you show that you are serious, and have researched your belief. By educating yourself and having information that supports your claim, you appear much more credible.
132Reflections Cont…I have learned that being a master teacher encompasses much more than mastering the subject you are teaching. Master teachers are not only knowledgeable about their subject; they are motivated, energized, dynamic, clear, available, and open. You need to have mastered much more than your subject to become a master teacher.
133Reflections Cont…This project has caused me to see that becoming a master teacher takes much time, and much more hard work. I have also learned that effective teachers are a culmination of their philosophies, education, desires, hard work, and experiences. This is why no two teachers are exactly alike. All of their past histories impact who they are, how they teach, and why they teach.
134Reflections Cont…Completing this project has made me realize that I will not be teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic. I will be teaching students. This project has made me realize what a privilege I will have to help shape and guide children’s lives. I have learned of the great responsibility that I will have. This project has given me an intrinsic motivation; I will not fail my students or myself.
135Reflections Cont…Through completing this project, I have learned that you can not master education, you can only be prepared for it. An effective teacher is one who has an abundance of teaching styles, strategies, behaviors, and beliefs available, and uses, morphs, and changes them all. This educator is able to personalize and hand-craft her teaching to meet the individual needs of her students.
136Reflections Cont…This project has caused me to evaluate my thinking about the development of a master teacher. I have learned that becoming a master teacher is a slow process. I have also learned that although this process gets better with time, it will never be complete. Master teachers are also students; they are always learning, changing, and adapting. A master teacher is continually striving to perfect her skills, to learn new things, to make herself better.
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139Reference List Cont…Hooks, Bell. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.Lane, H., Hoffmeister, R. and B. Bahan. (1996). A Journey into the Deaf-World. San Diego: DawnSignPress.Mayfield Auditory-Oral Program Pamphlet. (2000)McGarry, Melissa. Personal Communication. ( ). October, 2000.Miller-Nomeland, M. and S. Gillespie. (1993). Deaf Studies curriculum guide. Washington DC: Gallaudet Univerity.
140Reference List Cont…Moores, D. (1996). Educating the deaf:Psychology, principles, and practices. (4th Ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Ohio Coalition of Essential Schools-Pamphlet.Orlich, D. et all (2001). Teaching strategies:a guide to better instruction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Overton, T. (2000). Assessment in special education:an applied approach (3rd Edition). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Owens, R. (1999). Language Disorders:a functional approach to assessment and intervention (3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
141Reference List Cont…Salend, S. (2001) Creating Inclusive Classrooms:Effective and reflective practices 4th ed. Upper Saddle River: Merrill Prentice Hall.Tompkins, Gail. (1998). 50 Literacy strategies: Step by step. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Turnbull, A. and Turnbull, R. (2000). Families, professionals, and exceptionalities: Collaborating for empowerment. (4th Edition) Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Williams, L.V. (1983). Teaching for the two sided mind:a guide to right brain/left brain education. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.Whole Language II: A folio of articles from perspectives in education and deafness. (1995). Washington D.C.: Gallaudet University.Wood, G. (1992). Schools that work. New York: Plume.