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System-1 Learning, Instruction and the PADI System An Approach to Diver Training.

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Presentation on theme: "System-1 Learning, Instruction and the PADI System An Approach to Diver Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 System-1 Learning, Instruction and the PADI System An Approach to Diver Training

2 System-2 Overview  Learning and Instruction  The Systems Approach to Diver Training  Learning and Instruction  The Systems Approach to Diver Training

3 System-3 Learning and Instruction  What is “mastery learning?”  Definition — when the learner can demonstrate proficiency and competence of all objectives  Mastering a skill means performing it in a reasonably comfortable, fluid, repeatable manner  Mastering knowledge means being able to apply the knowledge to diving situations  What is “mastery learning?”  Definition — when the learner can demonstrate proficiency and competence of all objectives  Mastering a skill means performing it in a reasonably comfortable, fluid, repeatable manner  Mastering knowledge means being able to apply the knowledge to diving situations

4 System-4 Learning and Instruction  What is “mastery learning?”  Mastery learning in the PADI System means that every diver must meet every objective or performance requirement  Meeting some, but not all objectives is not acceptable  Marginal performance, barely meeting an objective, or meeting an objective with difficulty does not meet the definition  Unlike courses where students continue after understanding only some concepts, the PADI System requires 100 percent mastery  What is “mastery learning?”  Mastery learning in the PADI System means that every diver must meet every objective or performance requirement  Meeting some, but not all objectives is not acceptable  Marginal performance, barely meeting an objective, or meeting an objective with difficulty does not meet the definition  Unlike courses where students continue after understanding only some concepts, the PADI System requires 100 percent mastery

5 System-5 PADI programs are performance-based, not time-based. All performance requirements must be met before certification is issued. How long it takes to master a skill, learn information or complete an entire course is not the issue. The concern is what the student can do.

6 System-6 Learning and Instruction  PADI System subscribes to mastery learning because:  It’s student-centered, not instructor-centered  It’s objective-oriented and product-centered  It defines the instructor’s role as a mentor  It incorporates repeated rehearsals Repetition is necessary for retention and mastery  It means constantly verifying student diver performance  PADI System subscribes to mastery learning because:  It’s student-centered, not instructor-centered  It’s objective-oriented and product-centered  It defines the instructor’s role as a mentor  It incorporates repeated rehearsals Repetition is necessary for retention and mastery  It means constantly verifying student diver performance

7 System-7 Learning and Instruction  What are the five categories of learning and how do they apply to diver training? 1.Motor skill – physical movements by the body, arms, hands, legs, etc.  Divers learn how to perform motor skills by reading descriptions, viewing videos and watching demonstrations  Divers perfect motor skills with practice  You determine mastery by evaluating performance in confined water and watching demonstrations in open water  What are the five categories of learning and how do they apply to diver training? 1.Motor skill – physical movements by the body, arms, hands, legs, etc.  Divers learn how to perform motor skills by reading descriptions, viewing videos and watching demonstrations  Divers perfect motor skills with practice  You determine mastery by evaluating performance in confined water and watching demonstrations in open water

8 System-8 Learning and Instruction  Five categories of learning... 2.Intellectual skills – knowing how and why things occur, being able to formulate and complete calculations, etc.  Divers acquire intellectual skills through independent study and participation in classroom discussions  Divers increase intellectual skills by applying them to diving situations  You determine mastery by checking diver answers on Knowledge Reviews and administering quizzes and exams  Five categories of learning... 2.Intellectual skills – knowing how and why things occur, being able to formulate and complete calculations, etc.  Divers acquire intellectual skills through independent study and participation in classroom discussions  Divers increase intellectual skills by applying them to diving situations  You determine mastery by checking diver answers on Knowledge Reviews and administering quizzes and exams

9 System-9 Learning and Instruction  Five categories of learning Verbal information – learned facts or information needed for application  Divers acquire verbal information through study and classroom participation  Divers retain verbal information by applying it to diving situations  You determine mastery by checking Knowledge Reviews, quizzes and exams  Five categories of learning Verbal information – learned facts or information needed for application  Divers acquire verbal information through study and classroom participation  Divers retain verbal information by applying it to diving situations  You determine mastery by checking Knowledge Reviews, quizzes and exams

10 System-10 Learning and Instruction  Five categories of learning Attitude – beliefs and values that affect what choices people make  Divers adopt certain attitudes by interacting with course materials and by watching what you do and say  Role modeling reinforces proper attitudes  It’s difficult to measure attitude, but you can determine if a diver has the knowledge and skills to make a good choice  Five categories of learning Attitude – beliefs and values that affect what choices people make  Divers adopt certain attitudes by interacting with course materials and by watching what you do and say  Role modeling reinforces proper attitudes  It’s difficult to measure attitude, but you can determine if a diver has the knowledge and skills to make a good choice

11 System-11 Learning and Instruction  Five categories of learning Cognitive strategy – a mental plan of action or method intended to accomplish a specific objective  Divers acquire cognitive strategies through study and classroom participation  Divers practice and apply strategies to diving situations in confined water and open water  You determine mastery by checking Knowledge Reviews, quizzes and exams, and by observing diver actions  Five categories of learning Cognitive strategy – a mental plan of action or method intended to accomplish a specific objective  Divers acquire cognitive strategies through study and classroom participation  Divers practice and apply strategies to diving situations in confined water and open water  You determine mastery by checking Knowledge Reviews, quizzes and exams, and by observing diver actions

12 System-12 Learning and Instruction  When do most people learn best?  People learn best when they are ready to learn — use good judgment  Diver must be intellectually, psychologically and physically prepared  Diver must not be distracted by the environment or have concerns about hunger, health, relationships, esteem, etc.  Diver must be free from stress and anxiety  When do most people learn best?  People learn best when they are ready to learn — use good judgment  Diver must be intellectually, psychologically and physically prepared  Diver must not be distracted by the environment or have concerns about hunger, health, relationships, esteem, etc.  Diver must be free from stress and anxiety

13 System-13 Learning and Instruction  When do most people learn best?  People learn best when they use past experiences to help them understand new information, skills and attitudes  People learn best from instructional repetition  PADI System incorporates lots of repetition and re-application of information and skills  When do most people learn best?  People learn best when they use past experiences to help them understand new information, skills and attitudes  People learn best from instructional repetition  PADI System incorporates lots of repetition and re-application of information and skills

14 System-14 Dive Today Learning Pyramids Open Water Diver Course Instructor Guide 1. Read about buoyancy in manual or multimedia 2. Watch video and learn about buoyancy 3. Complete Quick Quiz questions about buoyancy 4. Complete Knowledge Review, answer question on buoyancy 5. Take quiz, answer question on buoyancy 6. Review quiz 7. Listen to instructor elaboration on fine-tuning buoyancy 8. Listen to instructor explain and demonstrate buoyancy 9. Practice buoyancy skill in confined water 10. Take final exam, answer question on buoyancy 11. Review final exam 12. Practice buoyancy on open water dives 1. Read about buoyancy in manual or multimedia 2. Watch video and learn about buoyancy 3. Complete Quick Quiz questions about buoyancy 4. Complete Knowledge Review, answer question on buoyancy 5. Take quiz, answer question on buoyancy 6. Review quiz 7. Listen to instructor elaboration on fine-tuning buoyancy 8. Listen to instructor explain and demonstrate buoyancy 9. Practice buoyancy skill in confined water 10. Take final exam, answer question on buoyancy 11. Review final exam 12. Practice buoyancy on open water dives

15 System-15 Learning and Instruction  When do most people learn best?  People learn best when they are at ease and having fun  Build rapport with student divers to gain their trust  Allow them to progress at their own pace and avoid putting pressure on them  When do most people learn best?  People learn best when they are at ease and having fun  Build rapport with student divers to gain their trust  Allow them to progress at their own pace and avoid putting pressure on them

16 System-16 Learning and Instruction  What are the nine events of effective instruction and how are they built into the PADI System? 1.Gaining attention — you’ll formulate contact and value statements to get attention 2.Informing the learner of the objectives — you’ll state objectives during all presentations 3.Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning — you’ll relate information to other topics during knowledge development presentations  What are the nine events of effective instruction and how are they built into the PADI System? 1.Gaining attention — you’ll formulate contact and value statements to get attention 2.Informing the learner of the objectives — you’ll state objectives during all presentations 3.Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning — you’ll relate information to other topics during knowledge development presentations

17 System-17 Learning and Instruction  Nine events of instruction... 4.Presenting material in small segments — topics are clearly divided in PADI products 5.Providing learning guidance — your job is to guide and manage learning 6.Asking student divers questions on learned material, or asking them to execute skills as instruction is delivered — you’ll assess progress throughout each course 7.Providing feedback about performance — you’ll review knowledge and evaluate skill performance  Nine events of instruction... 4.Presenting material in small segments — topics are clearly divided in PADI products 5.Providing learning guidance — your job is to guide and manage learning 6.Asking student divers questions on learned material, or asking them to execute skills as instruction is delivered — you’ll assess progress throughout each course 7.Providing feedback about performance — you’ll review knowledge and evaluate skill performance

18 System-18 Learning and Instruction  Nine events of instruction... 8.Assessing performance of instruction — both you and the diver measure performance 9.Enhancing retention or transfer of learning — you’ll explain how and when divers will use information or skills, and how information and skills relate to continuing education courses  Nine events of instruction... 8.Assessing performance of instruction — both you and the diver measure performance 9.Enhancing retention or transfer of learning — you’ll explain how and when divers will use information or skills, and how information and skills relate to continuing education courses

19 System-19 Knowledge Review

20 System-20 Systems Approach to Diver Training  What is a systems approach to training and how does it relate to the PADI System?  An instructional system is a set of related, interacting educational tools (hardware) guided by an educational process (software) that is designed to accomplish a specific set of objectives  PADI System’s hardware (educational and instructional materials) and software (standards and procedures) help you ensure that divers achieve the intended learning outcomes — and remember material long after class  What is a systems approach to training and how does it relate to the PADI System?  An instructional system is a set of related, interacting educational tools (hardware) guided by an educational process (software) that is designed to accomplish a specific set of objectives  PADI System’s hardware (educational and instructional materials) and software (standards and procedures) help you ensure that divers achieve the intended learning outcomes — and remember material long after class

21 System-21 Systems Approach to Diver Training  What are the six advantages of using an instructional system? 1. Instructional systems are efficient  Most knowledge development occurs through independent study, which reduces necessary classroom time  More time is available for diver counseling and skill development  Divers know what to expect, thus come better prepared to participate  What are the six advantages of using an instructional system? 1. Instructional systems are efficient  Most knowledge development occurs through independent study, which reduces necessary classroom time  More time is available for diver counseling and skill development  Divers know what to expect, thus come better prepared to participate

22 System-22 Systems Approach to Diver Training  Six advantages... 2.Instructional systems provide legal protection for the instructor  Burden of proof in terms of educational validity and training adequacy shifts to program designers  Use the system as prescribed — deviating may cause you to have to defend your actions and establish yourself as an instructional design authority  Six advantages... 2.Instructional systems provide legal protection for the instructor  Burden of proof in terms of educational validity and training adequacy shifts to program designers  Use the system as prescribed — deviating may cause you to have to defend your actions and establish yourself as an instructional design authority

23 System-23 Systems Approach to Diver Training  Six advantages... 3.Instructional systems ensure that all course material and important objectives are covered in a proper sequence 4.Instructional systems are validated by actual field tests and experience 5.Instructional systems allow you to focus on individual student diver needs 6.Instructional systems accommodate various learning styles — multisensory approach  Six advantages... 3.Instructional systems ensure that all course material and important objectives are covered in a proper sequence 4.Instructional systems are validated by actual field tests and experience 5.Instructional systems allow you to focus on individual student diver needs 6.Instructional systems accommodate various learning styles — multisensory approach

24 System-24 Systems Approach to Diver Training  How can you use the PADI System most effectively?  Always review program standards and gather most current materials  Stylize it to individual needs and abilities  Help student divers remain motivated by allowing them to progress at own pace  Apply good judgment regarding educational tools and course standards  Customize to the local culture and environment  How can you use the PADI System most effectively?  Always review program standards and gather most current materials  Stylize it to individual needs and abilities  Help student divers remain motivated by allowing them to progress at own pace  Apply good judgment regarding educational tools and course standards  Customize to the local culture and environment

25 System-25 We’ve looked at...  Learning and Instruction  The Systems Approach to Diver Training  Learning and Instruction  The Systems Approach to Diver Training


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