Presentation on theme: "10 Ways to Make Content Information Visual Dr. Nanci A. Scheetz, CSC Professor, VSU Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Professor, GSU."— Presentation transcript:
10 Ways to Make Content Information Visual Dr. Nanci A. Scheetz, CSC Professor, VSU Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Professor, GSU
1. Manipulative Material tangible materialsDeaf and hard of hearing students benefit from instruction that is supported by visual context and tangible materials. link between their experiential knowledge and symbolic or abstract linguistic and cognitive informationUsing manipulative material and visual representations provide them with the link between their experiential knowledge and symbolic or abstract linguistic and cognitive information (Conway,1990).
2. Use Functional Charts and Graphs new concepts and skillsAs new concepts and skills are taught functional charts and graphs can be developed. –Use real objects, pictures, or printed words until the student can interpret the information independently refer to them –Hang the charts in the classroom and refer to them while teaching new skills
3. Use Networking Charts relationshipsDeveloped by Long and his colleagues at NTID (Long et al. 1980) and others (Hyerle, 1988), this method teaches students to identify and visually represent six different types of relationships often represented in instructional content. The six types include: –Definition –Characteristic –Example –Sequence –Result –Compare/contrast
4. Use Clusters, Webs, and Maps spider-like webs and mapsClusters are spider-like diagrams on a sheet of paper. Clusters go by several names including webs and maps. There are two types of clusters: –organized –unorganized
Steps in Creating Clusters, Webs, and Maps There are three main steps in creating clusters: –Select a topic and place it in the center of a circle –Brainstorm a list of words and phrases that are related to the topic –Add main ideas and details (Tompkins, 2004)
5. Posters and Charts Posters and charts can provide an excellent visual for deaf and hard of hearing students. Teachers can develop: words and sentence strips –Pocket charts to hold words and sentence strips compile facts –Data charts for use in social studies and science units whereby students can compile facts poetry center –Charts for use in poetry units; these charts can describe the various poetic forms available in a poetry center –KWL charts –KWL charts can be used across the curriculum highlight key vocabulary and conceptsPosters that highlight key vocabulary and concepts can become a visual reminder for key concepts
6. Double Entry Journals –A double-entry journal is a special type of reading log in which the pages are divided into two columns (Barone, 1990; Berthoff, 1981). quotes from the storyIn the left column students write quotes from the story or text they are reading reflect on each quoteIn the right column they reflect on each quote (These reflections can relate to their own lives or they can use the space to ask questions)
7. Learning Logs Learning logs are a form of a journal where students record information that theyre learning.Learning logs are a form of a journal where students record information that theyre learning. –Prepare learning logs at the beginning of a thematic unit –Plan activities for students to use their learning logs (taking notes, drawing pictures, putting clusters, etc.) –Monitor the students entries
8. Cubing Cubing was designed to help student explore topics from six dimensions or viewpoints (Neeld, 1986). The six dimensions include: –Describing the topic –Comparing the topic to something else –Associating the topic to something else and explaining why it makes you think of something else –Analyzing the topic and explaining how it is made or what its components are –Apply the topic and tell how it can be used –Argue for or against the topic
How Cubing is Used Cubes can be used in two ways:Cubes can be used in two ways: –Students can create a cube as a way to review a topic that theyve been studying –They can design a cube to demonstrate what theyve learned
Steps in the Cubing Process Choose a topicChoose a topic – students can choose a topic related to the unit youre focusing on Divide students into groupsDivide students into groups – students work in six small groups and each group examines the topic from one of the six dimensions BrainstormBrainstorm – students brainstorm their ideas Complete the cubeComplete the cube – students share what they have written with the class and attach their thoughts to their cube (Tompkins, 2004)
9. Student Made Materials students in designing materialsEngage students in designing materials that they use to help master information. These include, but are not limited to: –Flash cards –Venn Diagrams –KWL Charts –Clusters and Maps
10. Pictures, Movies, and Clip Art Deaf and hard of hearing students, especially those at very young ages, often need a picture to connect a printed word or a concept to. Pictures taken with digital cameras of real life objects can be very beneficial Movies demonstrating sequence, cause and effect relationships, etc. are also very beneficial Clip art can be effective if it is a realistic representation of the object
10 Ways to Make Content Information Visual 1.Use manipulatives 2.Use functional charts and graphs 3.Use networking charts 4.Use clusters, webs, and maps 5.Use posters and charts 6.Make use of double entry journals 7.Create learning logs
Additional Ways to Make Content Information Visual 8.Use cubing 9.Take advantage of student made materials 10.Use pictures, movies, and clip art
References Barone, D. (1990). The written responses of young children: Beyond comprehension to story understanding. The New Advocate, 3, 49-56. Berthoff, A. E. (1981). The making of meaning. Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook. Conway, D. (1985). Children(re)creating writing: A preliminary look at the purposes of free-choice writing of hearing-impaired kindergartners. The Volta Review 87 (5) 91-107. [Annual Monograph]. Long, g. Hein, r. Coggiola, D., and Pizzente, M. (1980). Networking: A technique for Understanding and Remembering Instructional Material (2 nd ed.). New York: N ational Technical Institute for the Deaf and Rochester Institute of Technology Ross, M. (ed.)( 1990).Hearing-Impaired children in the mainstream. Parkton, MD: York Press.
References Continued Sanders, D.M. (1988). Teaching deaf children techniques and methods. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company. Tompkins, G.E. (2004). 50 Literacy strategies step by step. Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall.