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Understanding Information Systems. Information System (IS) An IS is a combination of people, hardware, software, computer networks, and data that organizations.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Information Systems. Information System (IS) An IS is a combination of people, hardware, software, computer networks, and data that organizations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Information Systems

2 Information System (IS) An IS is a combination of people, hardware, software, computer networks, and data that organizations use to manage daily and long- term operations.

3 Computer-based Information Systems Improved Speed Quality Measurability Computer-based information systems offer four key advantages over traditional (pre-computer) information systems: Efficiency

4 Information Systems Classified by Function Distribution Management Office Information Management Information Decision Support Executive Support Factory Automation

5 Information Systems Office Information Systems (OIS) Electronic Data Processing (EDP) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Executive Support Systems (ESS)

6 Factory Automation Systems Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Statistical Quality Control (SQC)

7 Information Systems Considerations Upgrading or switching to a computer- based information system affects: Technical Staff Information Technology Costs Profit Margins Product Quality Clerical Staff

8 Upgrading or Switching to a Computer-Based Information System Companies should realize that there will be disruptions.

9 Research Once the impact of a new system has been studied and a decision to proceed has been made, a new system must be purchased “off the shelf,” or developed and brought into service.

10 Subcontracting Means hiring a third party to handle a project.

11 Systems House Sometimes known as a systems integrator, a systems house is a company that specializes in installing and supporting information systems.

12 Factors in Choosing A New Information System User Interface Design Open vs. Closed System Niche Information System Turnkey Solutions System Support

13 Developing a New Information System Because of their large size, information systems require the creation of a project team.

14 Project Manager Manager also functions as a systems analyst, responsible for completing the systems analysis and making design recommendations.

15 Automate CASE Tools Software packages that automate the design and development of a project. Project Analysis Graphic Specifications Program Code Testing & Debugging Maintenance Reports Flowcharts Graphs Models

16 Gantt Charts Gantt charts are bar charts showing the stages of a project and the order in which they must be completed.

17 System Development Life Development PLAN DESIGN IMPLEMENT SUPPORT RETURN to STAGE 1

18 Development Plan The process is circular, meaning that once the last stage is reached the planners return to the beginning and repeat the process.

19 Feasibility Study A feasibility study is conducted, investigating how difficult the project might be to complete and how much it might cost.

20 Request for Proposal (RFP) If management decides to hire a systems house, a request for proposal (RFP) will be sent to one or more possible suppliers.

21 Functional Specification In most cases, the project team creates a functional specification, describing what the system must be able to do.

22 Design Specifications Detail the hardware and software necessary to execute the functions. Operating System Data Model Authorized Users

23 A Prototype Is a miniprogram that demonstrates the user interface and functionality of the system.

24 Development Coding, debugging programs and compiling programs.

25 Beta Testing The system is rigorously tested before it is completely trusted to function as designed.

26 User Training Normally takes place at the same time as beta testing.

27 Emergency Patch During debugging, testing, user training, and implementation, the development team might be called on to create an emergency patch, or correction, to the system.

28 Approval

29 Support Stage A system goes into the support stage after it has been accepted and approved.

30 A Support Contract A support contract normally allows users to contact the systems house for technical support, training, and sometimes on-site troubleshooting.

31 Return to Stage One System development is a process of continuous improvement.

32 On the Horizon Business Intelligence Sift through information warehouses to find the gold within. However, companies need help in making sense of the data, and this is a focus for information systems software vendors. The Future Holds…Simplicity Increasingly, customers demand simple, reliable interfaces for information systems as well as retail software. Enterprise Integration Software These products link a multitude of different programs so that information can be shared and sent back and forth more easily. A similar approach gaining popularity is outsourcing data storage and purchasing applications and Web site servicing.

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