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8 Chapter 8: Evaluating Alternatives for Requirements, Environment, and Implementation Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World.

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Presentation on theme: "8 Chapter 8: Evaluating Alternatives for Requirements, Environment, and Implementation Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World."— Presentation transcript:

1 8 Chapter 8: Evaluating Alternatives for Requirements, Environment, and Implementation Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World

2 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 2 Learning Objectives u Prioritize the system requirements based on the desired scope and level of automation for the new system u Describe the strategic decisions that integrate the application deployment environment and the design approach for the new system u Determine alternative approaches for system development

3 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 3 Learning Objectives ( continued ) u Evaluate and select a development approach based on the needs and resources of the organization u Describe key elements of a request for proposal and evaluate vendors’ proposals for outsourced alternatives u Develop a professional presentation of findings to management

4 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 4 Overview u Chapter explains last three activities of analysis l Prioritize systems requirements l Generate and evaluate alternatives l Review recommendation with management u Refocus project direction u Transition from discovery and analysis to solutions and design u Set direction for design and implementation of solution system

5 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 5 Project Management Perspective u Project manager and senior technical members of project team work together u Eight areas of project management l Human resources l Procurement l Communications l Risk l Scope l Time l Cost l Quality

6 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 6 Deciding on Scope and Level of Automation u Scope determines which business functions will be included in system u Level of automation is how much computer support exists for functions included in level u Scope creep l Requests for addition of system functions after requirements defined and decision has been made l Users typically request more business functions than budget allows l Event table

7 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 7

8 8 8 Determining the Level of Automation u Low level l Simple computer records keeping u Medium level l Midrange point which combines features from low and high alternatives u High level l System takes over processing of business function

9 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 9

10 8 10 Selecting Alternatives u Entire group of alternatives is evaluated together to provide “big picture” view of proposed system u Key criteria that are used: l Strategic plan l Economic feasibility l Schedule and resource feasibility l Technological feasibility l Operational, organizational, and cultural feasibility

11 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 11 Strategic Directions for RMO

12 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 12 Defining the Application Deployment Environment u Configuration of: l Computer hardware l System software l Networks l Development Tools l SECURITY u Existing environment generally considered and compared with proposed environment

13 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 13 Hardware, System Software, and Networks u Older batch-mode applications on centralized mainframe u Stand-alone applications on mini- and personal computers u On-line interactive applications u Distributed applications u Web-based applications

14 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 14 Existing Processing Environment at RMO

15 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 15 Deployment Environment Characteristics u Compatibility with system requirements u Compatibility among hardware and system software u Required interfaces to external systems u Conformity with IT strategic plan and architecture plans u Cost and schedule

16 8 Start Here 3/28/2007

17 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 17 Development Tools u Programming languages, CASE tools, software used to develop application software u Java and Visual Studio.NET are examples u Application deployment environment decisions limit development tool choices l Operating system environment l Database management system (DBMS) l Distributed software standard

18 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 18 Processing Environment Alternatives

19 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 19 Choosing Implementation Alternatives u Variations on obtaining system l Facilities management outsource all IS support l Packaged software, Turnkey system, ERP system l Custom-built software systems l In-house development u Selection dimensions l Buy vs. build l In-house vs. outsource

20 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 20 Implementation Alternatives

21 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 21 Selecting an Implementation Alternative u Identifying Criteria for Selection l Comparisons can be difficult l Different proposed systems have strengths in different areas u Three major areas to consider l General requirements l Technical requirements l Functional requirements

22 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 22 Partial Matrix of General Requirements

23 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 23 Partial Matrix of Functional Requirements

24 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 24 Partial Matrix of Technical Requirements

25 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 25 Making the Selection u First, rate each alternative with raw score u Weighted scores are then tabulated and compared to make a choice u RMO decided on in-house development for most CSS development to keep expertise within RMO u RMO wants to hire some new technical specialists u RMO feasibility review showed no serious problems – once specialists are added

26 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 26 Contracting with Vendors u Generating Request for Proposal (RFP) l Formal document sent to vendors if in-house development not selected l States requirements and solicits proposed solutions l Considered a competitive contract offer l Bid on supplying hardware, software, and/or support services

27 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 27 I. Introduction and Background II. Overview of Need III. Description of Technical Requirements IV. Description of Functional Requirements V. Description of General Requirements VI. Requested Provider and Project Information VII. Details for Submitting Proposal IV. Evaluation Criteria and Process Sample RFP Table of Contents

28 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 28 V. Description of General Requirements VI. Requested Provider and Project Information VII. Details for Submitting Proposal IV. Evaluation Criteria and Process Sample RFP Table of Contents ( continued )

29 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 29 Sample RFP Table of Contents ( continued )

30 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 30 Benchmarking and Choosing a Vendor u Observe in use or install trial version u Benchmark – evaluate the system against a standard u Visit another company using particular system u Developing a contract l Fixed-dollar contracts: Risk is on vendor l Cost-plus-percentage: Risk is on purchaser l Cost-plus-fixed-fee: Risk shared by both

31 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 31 Presenting Results and Making Decisions u Compile and organize documentation u Present alternatives and critical issues in easy-to- understand but complete manner u Final choice generally made by executive steering committee u Format of documentation and presentation style varies with organization

32 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 32 Summary u These activities are primarily project manager responsibilities with support from project team u Focus of project changes from discovering requirements to developing solution system u Prioritize requirements based on scope and level of automation l Scope of new system determines functions it will support l Level of automation is measure of how automated selected functions will be

33 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 33 Summary ( continued ) u Application deployment environment l Computer hardware, systems software, and networks in which new system will operate l Determines constraints imposed on system development alternatives u Analyst must define environment to match: l Application requirements l Organization’s strategic application plans l Organization’s technology architecture plans

34 8 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 34 Summary ( continued ) u Determine what alternatives are possible for developing solution u Implementation alternatives include: l Building system in-house l Buying packaged or turnkey solution l Contracting with developer to build it (outsource) u Develop recommendations and present to management to make funding decisions


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