Presentation on theme: "Author: Brenda Stephenson The University of Tennessee Date submitted to deafed.net – March 6, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint,"— Presentation transcript:
Author: Brenda Stephenson The University of Tennessee Date submitted to deafed.net – March 6, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.
Factors to Consider in Promoting Conversation and Questioning Skills Contributed by: Brenda Stephenson The University of Tennessee
Johnson Conversational Model 1. Noninteractional Events 2. Gaining the individuals attention 3. Onset of the conversation 4. Exchange pleasantries 5. Establish the topic 6. Exchange information 7. Recognize and repair conversational breakdown 8. Negotiate the ending to the conversation 9. End the conversation 10. Leave the conversation
Factors to Consider in Promoting Conversation and Questioning Skills Consider the conversational environment Background noise Poor lighting Visual noise and distractions Poor room acoustics
Factors continued Consider your message to the student Be clear yet concise Provide complete message Repeat important keywords and phrases Use precise vocabulary. Avoid this,that,it Pause between utterances to give students time to process information Avoid run-on sentences. Do not exceed the students length of memory
Factors continued Maintain flexibility in questioning students Talk about topics the student brings up Provide additional information as you listen Avoid comments that are likely to truncate a conversation like Interesting Avoid questions where there is an obvious one word answer. Avoid question after question after question Allow student time to respond
Factors continued Understand the sequence of development of questions and factors influencing these Yes/no questions Wh questions (What is that?) Yes/No with copula be True wh questions Tag Questions Subject-auxillary inversions Embedded questions Factors continued
Tools for Enhancement of Conversations and Questioning Scaffolding Scripts Role-playing scenarios
SCAFFOLDING It is an interactive process of guiding information exchanges and is often thought of as a tool for reading instruction There are 2 ways to use scaffolding in conversations: Demonstrate the structure of other conversations Can present new bits of information upon which the student can build his conversation and questions
Scripts A script is a talking routine that parents impart to hearing children. Students who are deaf and hard of hearing benefit from scripts also. Scripts include the use of three components: Typical roles Typical props Scripted language
Scenarios Scenarios are a type of conversational scaffold. They are open-ended and involve role- playing. The roles are discussed in advance and students are given help if needed.