Presentation on theme: "Author: Dr. Harold Johnson Kent State University"— Presentation transcript:
1 Author: Dr. Harold Johnson Kent State University Date submitted to deafed.net – February 7, 2006To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, pleaseTo use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.
2 Language Assessment: Conversational Model SPED 4/53310 Language Assessment & Intervention with Students who are d/hhHarold Johnson/Kent State UniversityFall ’05Undergraduate/Graduate courseFor more information, please call me at
3 The Johnson Conversational Model OccurrenceSegmentsTasksBehaviorsChannelsReference: Easterbrooks S., Baker S. (2002). Language learning in children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Multiple pathways. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Multimedia segments added by Courtney Sajben, with assistance from: David Sajben, Leslie Baird, Laurie Suthern, Britt Andrews, John Kruger and Christina Todd.
4 ...Conversational Occurrence ConversationsdayDuring the course of a day, an individual will have numerous conversations.
5 ...Conversational Segments middlebeginningendEach conversational exchange, can be divided into three basic parts....
6 ...Conversational Tasks middle 3 9 5 4 8 beginning end 6 10 2 7 1 1 1. Prior to the conversation4. Exchange pleasantries2. Gain the individual’s attention5. Establish the topic3. Note the onset of the conversation6. Exchange informationDuring each segment of the conversation specific tasks must be accomplished
7 ...Conversational Tasks (cont.) middle39548beginningend61027117. Recognize & repair communication breakdowns8. Bring the conversation to a close9. Mark the end of the conversation10. Leave the conversation
28 ...Conversational Behaviors 395486102711Reflexive BehaviorsSignal BehaviorsSymbolic BehaviorsConversational tasks are accomplished via the use of three types of behaviors
29 ...Conversational Behaviors (cont.) Reflexive Behaviors:Occur all the timeRepresent external manifestations of internal states, e.g., an itch causes you to scratch or a bit of grit in your eye causes you to blinkNot intended to convey communicative intent (Note: cultural differences can cause miss communications)
30 ...Conversational Behaviors (cont.) Signal Behaviors:Occur from conversational tasks #2 through # 10Represent a purposeful pattern of behavior that is designed to convey communicative intent, e.g., a “wave of the hand,” a “shrug of the shoulder,” or a “head nod.”Require a supportive physical context to be correctly interpreted, i.e., the intended meaning of the behavior can not be correctly interpreted outside a narrow range of settings.
31 ...Conversational Behaviors (cont.) Symbolic Behaviors:occur from conversational tasks # 4 through #8Represent a purposeful pattern of either spoken or signed behavior that is designed to convey communicative intent, e.g., a word, phrase or sentence.Represent symbolic vs. concrete communicative behaviors, as such, the intended meaning can be correctly interpreted in a wide range of settings.
32 ...Conversational Channels 12345678910Reflexive BehaviorsSignal BehaviorsSymbolic BehaviorsVisualMotoricalVerbalConversational behaviors are carried out through use of three channels of behaviors
33 So...how will YOU use all of this information? 1st you will use the information to carry out an informal analysis of your own language use and problems.as you carry out this analysis, you will learn how to observe, record and chart data, analyze problems, hypothesize solutions and then, through a trial-and-error process, you will see if your hypothesis were correct, finally ending with a summary written synthesis of what you found and what you learned.
34 ...how will you (cont.)Once you have learned the information as it applies to you, then you apply the same process in your study of a student who is d/hh within your practicum placementBasic concept....first understand something as it relates to you, then to others...ergo, if you can’t figure out how the information fits for you, you will not be able to figure out how it fits for others
35 What are the steps you will use to implement this conversational model of language assessment and intervention?In essence, the steps are as follows:identify the best context (i.e., person, place & time) to observeWhat makes for a good context?
36 ...What are the steps... (cont.) ...context identificationTopic identificationWhat do you talk about & How often do you talk about ‘x’ vs. ‘y’Identification of communication breakdownsWhat does a breakdown look like?Which Topics have the most breakdowns?What happens following a breakdown?
37 ...What are the steps... (cont.) ...context iden....topic iden....com. breakdown iden.Intervention EffortTarget the topic with the most com. breakdowns.Analyze what occurs just before the breakdown and why the breakdown occurs.Refine description of the com. breakdown indicatorsHypothesize why breakdowns occur on that topic (e.g., topic establishment patterns or conflicting conversational tasks)Identify an ‘alternative behavior, i.e., one that might reduce the frequency or severity of topical com. breakdowns.Try out...several times...the alternative behavior...use data to decide if you are successful or not.
38 ...What are the steps... (cont.) ...context iden....topic iden....com. breakdown iden....intervention effortResulting Insights re.Language useOccurrence and Causes of Communication BreakdownsAssessment of Communication ProblemsIntervention of Communication ProblemsGathering and Tracking Assessment and Intervention DataNote: this is where YOU reflect about what you have learned via the obs. study – this is where an ‘A’ is earned