Presentation on theme: "Art Movements of the Post WWI Years 1919-1939 Raphaella W. DEF HGHS Chappaqua, NY."— Presentation transcript:
Art Movements of the Post WWI Years Raphaella W. DEF HGHS Chappaqua, NY
Essential Question: How were the emotions and actions of the aftermath of WWI expressed in the following art movements?
The expression of the Artists right to freedom of choice in subject and style. Departure from literal representation – no longer needed with birth of photography. Art for Arts sake Reject tradition and society. Principles of Modernism
Modernism by the Critics For the younger artists of France have completely thrown overboard the ideals of perfection and form, of grace and measure and tranquility, which we are accustomed to think as their most valuable possession. …their (Dadaists) manifestos and tracts – with which it is proposed to purge French art of its slavish subservience to rules. from The Aesthetic Upheaval in France by Edmund Wilson Jr., Vanity Fair February 1922
Modernism by the Artists Seven years ago, I tried to make a painting that would live by its own resources…At the present time I am doing research in art. My conclusions? I cannot explain my present researches until I myself have evolved out of them, that is to say, until I have gone further in my artistic evolution. Francis Picabia, quoted from Francis Picabia and his Puzzling Art (an extremely modernized academician), from Vanity Fair November 1915
Art movements as part of Modernism Dadaism (1916 – 1924) Bauhaus (1919 – 1933) Art Deco (1920 – 1935) Surrealism [early] ( )
Tristan Tzara – founder of Dadaism Freedom : Dada Dada Dada, a roaring of tense colors, and interlacing of opposites and all contradictions, grotesques, inconsistencies: LIFE Dada Manifesto 
Began in neutral Switzerland in WWI Also big in Paris. Reached its peak between 1916 – 1924 Anti – Art A movement against rigidity of society and art, and the barbarity of war – the public didnt deserve art after the war. Dadaism
Tristan Tzara Born in Romania in Lived most of his life in Paris. Wrote the first Dada text, La Premiere Aventure celeste de Monsieur Antipyrine in Penned the movements manifestos, Sept manifestes Dada, in Became an active member of the French Communist Party in later life.
Characteristics of Dada Art Nonsensical drawings Pastel and faded colors Used collages and layers – to confuse the unworthy beholder. The beginnings of surrealism – many Dada artists went on to become members of the Surrealist movement. Subjects sometimes mundane, called art as irony. (e.g.– bicycle wheel, flyer.)
Important Artists of the Dada Movement Tristan Tzara (1896 – 1953) Francis Picabia (1879 – 1953) Kurt Schwitters (1887 – 1948) Max Ernst (1891 – 1976) Marcel Duchamp (1887 – 1958)
Francis Picabia Machine Turn Quickly
Francis Picabia Feathers 1921
Francis Picabia Chapeau de Paille 1921
Kurt Schwitters The Cherry Picture 1921
Kurt Schwitters Merz 448 (Moscow) 1922
Kurt Schwitters Kleine Dada Soiree 1922
Marcel Duchamp Monte Carlo Bond 1924
Marcel Duchamp You Me (Tu-M) 1918
Publications of the Dada movement Many publications within Dada Movement Was not only an art movement, but included poetry and theatre. First publication - Cabaret Voltaire Followed by Dada in July an art and literature review organized by Tristan Tzara. Other publications included Le courre a Barbe, Der Dada, De Stijl, Proverbe, & Freie Straße
Example covers of Dada Magazine (1917 & 1920)
Example articles from De Stijl and Dada
Walter Gropius : F ounder of Bauhaus The School will gradually turn into a workshop… Art and Technology - a new unity.
Bauhaus Began in 1919 with Bauhaus School in Weimar, Germany. Lead by Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, & Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe. Wanted to create new art to reflect the new times they were living in after WWI. Artist should be trained to work in the industry.
Walter Gropius Born in Berlin in 1883 Served as Sgt. Major in WWI. In 1919 was employed as the new master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar – became the Bauhaus School. Fled Germany and the Nazi Party in Died in Boston, MA in 1969.
Characteristics of Bauhaus A lack of recognizable objects – wanted to find the true meaning of art through disassembling it. Clean lines, geometric shapes layered. In architecture: clean, functional. Like Dadaism, was a step toward surrealism for artists such as Wassily Kandinsky. Stylistic patterns altered as leaders of the school changed – earlier Bauhaus is different to later Bauhaus.
Important members of the Bauhaus school Walter Gropius ( ) Wassily Kandinsky ( ) Josef Albers ( ) Herbert Bayer ( )
Bauhaus School in Dessau, Germany
Wassily Kandinsky Contrasting Sounds 1924
Wassily Kandinsky On White II 1923
Wassily Kandinsky Yellow Red Blue 1925
Josef Albers Figure (Glass, Colour and Light) 1921
Herbert Bayer Profil en Face 1929
Herbert Bayer Birthday Greetings to Xonti 1930
Like Dada, Bauhaus also published periodicals and magazines. Head of printing and design for Bauhaus Magazine was Herbert Bayer. The Bauhaus school also published books called Bauhausbücher
Art Deco Center: Paris. Gained the title Art Deco from Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes in 1925 A new kind of decorative and elegant art. Reached its high point in the mid 20s – mid 30s. Reaction to the forced austerity caused by WWI.
Characteristics of Art Deco Geometric shapes Although not the flowing swirls of Art Nouveau, had bolder curves and less fussy designs. Bold colors, and new ways of shading pictures. Idealistic images of the flaming youth of the roaring twenties. Carried a theme through pieces, especially in interiors and architecture.
Exposition Internationale des arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes April – November 1925 Held in Paris To show the world that France once again led the way in a new evolving international style – Art Deco. Changed the perception of Bauhaus, Colonial Art and, predominantly, the Art Deco style as legitimate movements.
Important Art Deco Artists Tamara de Lempicka (1898 – 1980) Erte - Romain De Tirtoff (1892 – 1990) William Van Allen (1883 – 1954) Cassandre - Adolphe Mouron (1901 – 1968)
Tamara de Lempicka Sleeping Girl 1935
Tamara de Lempicka Portrait of a Young Girl in a Green Dress 1929
Tamara de Lempicka Self Portrait in the Green Bugatti 1925
Erte Costume Design for Les Pierres Precieuses 1923
Erte Design for Lanternbearer in Venise XVII 1919
Erte LArc En Ciel (Cover for Harpers Bazaar) 1929
Cassandre Cigarettes Celtique 1935
Cassandre LAtlantique 1932
Cassandre LIntransigeant 1925
Surrealism Inspired by new psychology of two men: Sigmund Freud & Carl Gustav Jung
Basic Principles Freud Human development is best understood as changing objects of sexual desire Wishes are repressed and emerge from the subconscious in accidental bursts – Freudian slips. Neuroses are caused by repressed memories and unconscious conflicts. ID, Ego and Super Ego. Jung Neuroses are caused by conflicts between individuals subconscious and greater world. Sexual desire does not play as huge a role. Must make a healthy relationship between the conscious and unconscious – shouldnt be cut off from it, but shouldnt be swamped by it.
Surrealism Divided into two groups based on different interpretations of Freud and Jung – the Automatists and the Veristic Surrealists. Automatists - suppress conscious in order to free the subconscious, inspired by more Dadaist ideals, shouldnt be overly analyzed. Veristic Surrealists - follow the images of the subconscious so they can be interpreted; art is a way to freeze ideas of the subconscious.
Surrealism Lead by Andre Brenton, a French doctor who had served in the trenches during WWI. Subject matter was varied: – some pieces show a complete dislocation from any sort of literal reality (for example, Max Ernsts works) -- other pieces show normal situations with a spark of absurdity (for example, Rene Magritte's works.) Bright colors among sometimes dull backgrounds.
Max Ernst Hydrometric Demonstration Of How To Kill By Temperature 1920
Max Ernst Kupferblech 1919
Max Ernst The Elephant Celebs 1921
Max Ernst The Couple in Lace 1925
Rene Magritte The Menaced Assassin 1927
Rene Magritte Voice of Space 1931
Rene Magritte The False Mirror 1928
Rene Magritte The Lovers 1928
To summarize Post WWI art, a quote from its true founder…
Tristan Tzara - leader of Dada movement The beautiful and the true in art do not exist; what interests me is the intensity of a personality transposed directly, clearly into the work…and in what manner he knows how to gather sensation, emotion, into a lacework of words and sentiments. Lecture on Dada