4Principles of Modernism The expression of the Artist’s right to freedom of choice in subject and style.Departure from literal representation – no longer needed with birth of photography.“Art for Art’s sake”Reject tradition and society.
5“Modernism” by the Critics “ For the younger artists of France have completely thrown overboard the ideals of perfection and form, of grace and measure and tranquility, which we are accustomed to think as their most valuable possession.”“…their (Dadaist’s) manifestos and tracts – with which it is proposed to ‘purge’ French art of its slavish subservience to rules.”from “The Aesthetic Upheaval in France” by Edmund Wilson Jr., Vanity Fair February 1922
6“Modernism” by the Artists “ Seven years ago, I tried to make a painting that would live by its own resources…At the present time I am doing research in art. My conclusions? I cannot explain my present researches until I myself have evolved out of them, that is to say, until I have gone further in my artistic evolution.”Francis Picabia, quoted from “Francis Picabia and his Puzzling Art (an extremely modernized academician)”, from Vanity Fair November 1915
7Art movements as part of Modernism Dadaism (1916 – 1924)Bauhaus (1919 – 1933)Art Deco (1920 – 1935)Surrealism [early] ( )
9Tristan Tzara – founder of Dadaism “ Freedom : Dada Dada Dada, a roaring of tense colors, and interlacing of opposites and all contradictions, grotesques, inconsistencies: LIFE”“Dada Manifesto” 
10Dadaism Began in neutral Switzerland in WWI Also big in Paris. Reached its peak between 1916 – 1924“Anti – Art”A movement against rigidity of society and art, and the barbarity of war – the public didn’t deserve art after the war.
11Tristan Tzara Born in Romania in 1896. Lived most of his life in Paris.Wrote the first Dada text, La Premiere Aventure celeste de Monsieur Antipyrine in 1916.Penned the movements manifestos, Sept manifestes Dada, in 1924.Became an active member of the French Communist Party in later life.
12Characteristics of Dada Art Nonsensical drawingsPastel and faded colorsUsed collages and layers – to confuse the “unworthy beholder.”“The beginnings of surrealism” – many Dada artists went on to become members of the Surrealist movement.Subjects sometimes mundane, called art as irony. (e.g.– bicycle wheel, flyer.)
13Important Artists of the Dada Movement Tristan Tzara (1896 – 1953)Francis Picabia (1879 – 1953)Kurt Schwitters (1887 – 1948)Max Ernst (1891 – 1976)Marcel Duchamp (1887 – 1958)
22Publications of the Dada movement Many publications within Dada MovementWas not only an art movement, but included poetry and theatre.First publication - Cabaret VoltaireFollowed by Dada in July an art and literature review organized by Tristan Tzara.Other publications included Le courre a Barbe, Der Dada, De Stijl, Proverbe, & Freie Straße
26Walter Gropius: Founder of Bauhaus “The School will gradually turn into a workshop…Art and Technology - a new unity.”
27Bauhaus Began in 1919 with Bauhaus School in Weimar, Germany. Lead by Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, & Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe.Wanted to create new art to reflect the new times they were living in after WWI.Artist should be trained to work in the industry.
28Walter Gropius Born in Berlin in 1883 Served as Sgt. Major in WWI. In 1919 was employed as the new master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar – became the Bauhaus School.Fled Germany and the Nazi Party in 1934.Died in Boston, MA in 1969.
29Characteristics of Bauhaus A lack of recognizable objects – wanted to find the true meaning of art through disassembling it.Clean lines, geometric shapes layered.In architecture: clean, functional.Like Dadaism, was a step toward surrealism for artists such as Wassily Kandinsky.Stylistic patterns altered as leaders of the school changed – earlier Bauhaus is different to later Bauhaus.
30Important members of the Bauhaus school Walter Gropius ( )Wassily Kandinsky ( )Josef Albers ( )Herbert Bayer ( )
40Art DecoCenter: Paris.Gained the title “Art Deco” from Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes in 1925A new kind of decorative and elegant art.Reached its high point in the mid ’20s – mid 30’s.Reaction to the forced austerity caused by WWI.
41Characteristics of Art Deco Geometric shapesAlthough not the flowing swirls of Art Nouveau, had bolder curves and less “fussy” designs.Bold colors, and new ways of shading pictures.Idealistic images of the “flaming youth” of the “roaring twenties”.Carried a theme through pieces, especially in interiors and architecture.
42Exposition Internationale des arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes April – November 1925Held in ParisTo show the world that France once again led the way in a new evolving international style – “Art Deco”.Changed the perception of Bauhaus, Colonial Art and, predominantly, the Art Deco style as legitimate movements.
43Important Art Deco Artists Tamara de Lempicka (1898 – 1980)“Erte” - Romain De Tirtoff (1892 – 1990)William Van Allen (1883 – 1954)“Cassandre” - Adolphe Mouron (1901 – 1968)
54Surrealism Inspired by new psychology of two men: Sigmund Freud & Carl Gustav Jung
55Basic Principles Freud Jung Human development is best understood as changing objects of sexual desireWishes are repressed and emerge from the subconscious in “accidental” bursts – Freudian slips.Neuroses are caused by repressed memories and unconscious conflicts.ID, Ego and Super Ego.JungNeuroses are caused by conflicts between individuals subconscious and greater world.Sexual desire does not play as huge a role.Must make a healthy relationship between the conscious and unconscious – shouldn’t be cut off from it, but shouldn’t be swamped by it.
56SurrealismDivided into two groups based on different interpretations of Freud and Jung – the Automatists and the Veristic Surrealists.Automatists - suppress conscious in order to free the subconscious, inspired by more “Dadaist” ideals, shouldn’t be overly analyzed.Veristic Surrealists - follow the images of the subconscious so they can be interpreted; art is a way to freeze ideas of the subconscious.
57SurrealismLead by Andre Brenton, a French doctor who had served in the trenches during WWI.Subject matter was varied:– some pieces show a complete dislocation from any sort of literal “reality” (for example, Max Ernst’s works)-- other pieces show “normal” situations with a spark of absurdity (for example, Rene Magritte's works.)Bright colors among sometimes dull backgrounds.
58Max ErnstHydrometric Demonstration Of How To Kill By Temperature1920
66To summarize Post WWI art, a quote from its true founder…
67Tristan Tzara - leader of Dada movement “The beautiful and the true in art do not exist; what interests me is the intensity of a personality transposed directly, clearly into the work…and in what manner he knows how to gather sensation, emotion, into a lacework of words and sentiments.”“Lecture on Dada”