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Atoms: Development of the Atomic Theory

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1 Atoms: Development of the Atomic Theory

2 Democritus 460 BC - Greek philosopher proposes the existence of the atom His theory: all atoms are small hard particles made of a single material formed into different shapes and sizes always moving, and that they form different materials by joining together

3 John Dalton British chemist; elements combined in specific proportions to form compounds. His theory: all substances are made of atoms that cannot be created, divided, or destroyed atoms join with other atoms to make new substances atoms of the same element are exactly alike, and atoms of different elements are different in mass and size (elements)

4 Edward Frankland 1852 - English chemist developed the valence theory
His theory: every atom has a fixed number of bonds (chemical links) that it can form for the atom to be stable, all of these bonds must be used.

5 J.J. Thomson English chemist and physicist discovered 1st subatomic particles His theory: negatively charged particles called electrons and positively charged matter created a model to describe the atom as a sphere filled with positive matter with negative particles mixed in Referred to it as the plum pudding model

6 Ernest Rutherford 1912 - New Zealand physicist discovered the nucleus
His theory: small, dense, positively charged particle present in nucleus called a proton electrons travel around the nucleus, but their exact places cannot be described

7 Niels Bohr 1913 - Danish physicist discovered energy levels
His theory: electrons travel around the nucleus in definite paths and fixed distances electrons can jump from one level to a path in another level

8 Erwin Shrodinger Austrian physicist developed the electron cloud model His theory: electrons exact path cannot be predicted regions, referred to as the electron cloud, are areas where electrons can likely be found.

9 James Chadwick 1932 - English physicist discovered neutrons
His theory: neutrons have no electrical charge neutrons have a mass nearly equal to the mass of a proton unit of measurement for subatomic particles is the atomic mass unit (amu)

10 Modern Theory of the Atom
Atoms are composed of three main subatomic particles: the electron, the proton, and the neutron. Most of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus of the atom. The protons and neutrons are located within the nucleus while the electrons exist outside of the nucleus. In stable atoms, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.

11 Modern Theory of the Atom
The type of atom is determined by the number of protons it has. The number of protons in an atom is equal to the atomic number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a particular atom is called the atomic mass Valence electrons are the outermost electrons and are where bonding takes place

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