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1 Chapter 57 The Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2 FIGURE 57-1: Montage relating cortical EEG traces and scans of brain energy metabolism to a plot of sleep architecture depicting sleep/wake states (ordinate) as a function of time (abscissa). EEG traces are shown for wakefulness (red), REM sleep (aqua), Stage 1 NREM sleep (tan), Stage 2 NREM sleep (green) and Stage 3/4 NREM sleep (purple). Brain scans are in the horizontal plane with the front of the brain at the top and the back of the brain at the bottom of each image. The brain scans are aligned relative to an 8-hour plot of a normal sleep cycle in a young, healthy adult to illustrate high levels of glucose metabolism (red, orange, yellow) during states of wakefulness and REM sleep and lower levels of brain energy metabolism (green, blue, purple) during epochs of NREM sleep. Note the similarity between energy metabolism and EEG activity during wakefulness and REM sleep. The brain is as metabolically active during REM sleep as it is during wakefulness. Brain scans and hypnogram were kindly provided by Dr. Eric Nofzinger and are used with permission. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
3 FIGURE 57-2: Sagittal schematic of the rat brain (rostral to right) showing sleep related brain regions. Abbreviations: BF, basal forebrain; DRN, dorsal raphé nucleus; LC, locus ceruleus; LDT, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus; LH, lateral hypothalamus; MPO, medial preoptic area; PFC, prefrontal cortex; PPT, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus; PnC, pontine reticular formation, caudal part; PnO, pontine reticular formation, oral part; SN, substantia nigra; TMN, tuberomammillary nucleus; VLPAG, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray; VLPO, ventrolateral preoptic area; VTA, ventral tegmental area. (Modified from Watson et al., 2010.) Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
4 FIGURE 57-3: Drawings schematize state-dependent changes in monoaminergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic neurotransmission in the cerebral cortex and pontine reticular formation. Colored lines represent chemically coded projections from monoaminergic (red), cholinergic (green), and GABAergic (blue) neurons. Density of colored dots surrounding the schematized neuronal terminals indicates that neurotransmitter release varies as a function of sleep and wakefulness. State-dependent changes in cell discharge activity have been confirmed by multiple laboratories and provide the foundation for the current cellularly based, mathematical model of sleep cycle control that has predictive power (Steriade & McCarley, 2005). Abbreviations: DR, dorsal raphé nucleus; PHA, posterior hypothalamic area; PRF, pontine reticular formation; SC, spinal cord; Th, thalamus. (Modified from Hobson, 1999; Vanini et al., 2010a.) Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
5 FIGURE 57-4: Continued advances in understanding the neurochemical regulation of sleep will come from simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes in multiple brain regions. A. Even the brain of a 25-g mouse can accommodate stereotaxic placement of multiple microdialysis probes and/or chemical sensors. The leftmost probe was positioned in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for dialysis delivery of drugs while the rightmost probe was used to measure the effect on acetylcholine release in the pontine reticular formation (PRF). In spite of the limited spatial and temporal resolution of microdialysis, the study illustrated by this schematic revealed a previously unknown, descending pathway by which adenosine receptors in prefrontal cortex modulate acetylcholine release in the pons. (Used with permission from Van Dort et al., 2009.) B. Ratio of ACh to GABA in the pontine reticular formation (PRF). The graph expresses levels of ACh and GABA as a percent of their levels measured during wakefulness. Use of the ACh/GABA ratio provides an innovative proportionality index of neurochemical excitation and inhibition. For example, the waking ratio of 1 changes only to 1.2 during NREM sleep but to 3.5 during REM sleep. The use of such a proportionality index facilitates comparison of changes in analytes that vary with species, brain region, biosensor technology, and application of a wide range of independent variables. (Used with permission from Vanini et al., 2011.) Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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