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1 Chapter 61 Addiction Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2 FIGURE 61-1: Major drug classes, structures of prototypical agonists and primary targets implicated in drug class reward. See Figure 61-5 for structures of amphetamines. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
3 FIGURE 61-2: The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and associated circuits. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) contains both dopamine and GABA neurons that innervate the nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other forebrain targets not shown. Nucleus accumbens neurons, which use GABA as their transmitter, receive glutamate inputs from the PFC, amygdala (AMY), hippocampus (HPC) and thalamus (not shown). These glutamate inputs convey information important for goal-directed behaviors. NAc neurons integrate this information, and then transmit it to brain regions important for execution of these behaviors, including the ventral pallidum (VP), VTA and substantia nigra (SN), as well as other motor regions (dashed arrows). The prefrontal cortex influences this circuitry at many levels by sending descending glutamate projections to many targets, including the NAc, VTA, SN, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT). The PPT and LDT send mixed cholinergic, glutamate and GABA projections to the VTA and SN that exert an important regulatory influence on dopamine and GABA cells in the latter regions. Another important regulatory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons arises from lateral habenula (LHb) neurons in the epithalamus (structure not shown); although glutamatergic, LHb cells strongly inhibit dopamine neurons via a GABA intermediate. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
4 FIGURE 61-3: All reinforcing drugs increase dopamine transmission in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, but they use different mechanisms. Psychomotor stimulants interact with the dopamine transporter (DAT) to elevate extracellular dopamine levels. Opiates, ethanol and cannabinoids are believed to decrease GABA transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), thereby disinhibiting dopamine neurons. However, other mechanisms may also be involved in the effects of these drugs. For example, ethanol can directly excite dopamine neurons via voltage-gated ion channels. Nicotine excites dopamine cells directly and by altering the balance between inhibitory and excitatory inputs to the dopamine neurons. Dopamine-independent mechanisms also contribute significantly to the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
5 FIGURE 61-4: Amphetamine and other important stimulants. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
6 FIGURE 61-5: Convergent effects of D1 receptor and glutamate receptor signaling influence neuronal excitability by regulating ion channels and receptors in the membrane (see text) and influence gene expression by activating transcription factors such as CREB, as well as via related epigenetic mechanisms. D1 receptors signal via PKA as well as other cascades, including ERK and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway. Some effects are mediated indirectly by DARPP-32, a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 that is involved in many aspects of addiction (see Ch. 24). There is considerable cross-talk between D1 receptors and other receptors located in dopamine-receptive neuronsfor example, NMDA, AMPA, mGluR, D2 dopamine, serotonin, adenosine, opiate and GABA A receptors. The NMDA receptor plays an important role in activating Ca 2+ -dependent signaling pathways. Convergent activation of cAMP and Ca 2+ signaling pathways is necessary for some responses, e.g., CREB activation. The same signaling cascades are critical for activity-dependent forms of plasticity such as LTP. During the early phase of LTP, which requires activation of several protein kinases, synaptic strength is increased by mechanisms that include the synaptic insertion of additional AMPA receptors. This is followed by a later, more persistent component of LTP that requires protein synthesis. Presumably this is related to the spine enlargement and formation of new spines that is coordinated with AMPA receptor synaptic insertion during LTP. Remodeling of spines, as well as presynaptic terminals, is thought to underlie persistent changes in the activity of neuronal circuits. The ability of drugs of abuse to influence the same signaling pathways that mediate synaptic and structural plasticity helps to explain their ability to produce the persistent behavioral changes that constitute addiction. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
7 FIGURE 61-6: Formation and inactivation of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG. (1) N -arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (N - arachidonoyl PE), required for synthesis of anandamide, may be formed by N -acyl transferase (NAT), which transfers an arachidonate moiety, derived from the sn-1 position of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), to the primary amino group of PE. (2) Anandamide is generated from the hydrolysis of N -arachidonoyl PE, catalyzed by N -acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPEPLD). (3) Phospholipase C (PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P 2) to diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol (1,4,5)-triphosphate. (4) DAG lipase (DGL) catalyzes the formation of 2-AG from DAG. An alternative pathway for 2-AG formation involves the formation of a 2-arachidonoyl- lysophospholipid such as lyso-PI (catalyzed by phospholipase A1) followed by its hydrolysis to 2-AG (catalyzed by lyso-PLC). (5) Anandamide and 2-AG are agonists at the CB1 receptor. (6) Anandamide and 2-AG may be removed from the extracellular space by carrier-mediated transport. AM404 blocks endocannabinoid uptake. (7) Anandamide is hydrolyzed by a membrane-bound fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH), which is inhibited by URB597 and OL-135. (8) 2-AG is hydrolyzed by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). MAGL is inhibited by URB602 and JZL184. (9) Anandamide and 2-AG are converted to prostaglandin ethanolamides and glycerol esters, respectively, by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Abbreviations: AA, arachidonic acid; R, fatty acid group. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
8 FIGURE 61-7: Repeated exposure to amphetamine or cocaine increases spine density and the number of branched spines in medium spiny neurons, the major cell type of the nucleus accumbens. Left: camera lucida drawings of representative dendritic segments. Rats received 20 injections of saline (S), amphetamine (A) or cocaine (C) over 4 weeks and were then left undisturbed for about 1 month prior to analysis. Adapted from Robinson, T. E. & Kolb B., Eur. J. Neurosci. 11; 1598–1604, 1999. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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