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Axonal Growth in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System: Regeneration and Chapter 32 Axonal Growth in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System: Regeneration and Compensatory Plasticity Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 32-1: Simplified drawing depicting the difference between axonal plasticity and axonal regeneration. In axonal plasticity (A), following axonal injury the cut axon does not regrow, but other undamaged neurons grow new axons to reinnervate denervated targets. In axonal regeneration (B), cut axons regrow from the damaged sites and reconnect with denervated targets. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
TABLE 32-1: Major Differences in Wallerian DegenerationCopyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 32-2: Wallerian degeneration in the PNSFIGURE 32-2: Wallerian degeneration in the PNS. After an axon is injured, resulting chromatolysis—i.e., stress reaction and increased protein synthesis—occurs in the neuronal cell body, with axonal and myelin degeneration distal to the injury. Growth-permissive Schwann cells secrete growth factors that stimulate axons to regenerate. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 32-3: Diagram of the dorsal surface of the rat CNS, showing a peripheral nerve “bridge” linking the medulla oblongata and the thoracic spinal cord. As indicated by the arrows, damaged CNS axons from both sites of the nerve implantation grew into the graft and continued for long distances, demonstrating the growth potential of CNS neurons when given the microenvironment of the PNS (Modified from (David & Aguayo, 1981), with permission). Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 32-4: Isoforms of NogoFIGURE 32-4: Isoforms of Nogo. Nogo-A, -B, and -C have a common carboxy terminus of about 180 amino acids (the common domain (blue) contains Nogo-66). Nogo-A and -B share an amino terminus of about 172 amino acids (green). Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 32-5: Nogo-A, MAG and OMgp are the principal inhibitors of neurite growth in CNS myelin. A portion of Nogo-A, i.e., Nogo- 66, interacts with the same receptor, NgR, as do MAG and OMgp. NgR in the neuronal membrane complexes with p75 (or Troy) and Lingo-1 to activate Rho A and its downstream target, ROCK, and may result in neurite inhibition. Nogo-66 also interacts with the PirB receptor on the neuron to inhibit neurite growth by a mechanism not yet identified. Another major inhibitory area of Nogo-A, known as Amino-Nogo or NogoΔ20, interacts with a receptor that is not yet known. [Cai] = intracellular calcium. (Modified from (Schwab, 2004) with permission). Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 32-6: Diagram depicting cortico-efferent projections from the rodent motor cortex to subcortical areas, including the red nucleus and the spinal cord. In the normal adult (A), cortical neurons project to the ipsilateral red nucleus and the contralateral spinal cord grey column. After a neonatal cortical lesion (B), cortico-efferent fibers spontaneously sprout to the contralateral denervated red nucleus and the ipsilateral, denervated spinal cord (gray). After an adult stroke lesion (C), very little spontaneous sprouting is seen. However, after adult stroke and treatment with anti–Nogo-A antibody (D), plasticity to the denervated red nucleus and spinal cord is again seen, correlating with functional recovery. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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