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Air Quality Control Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Seminar on Capacity Building on Air Pollution Prevention and Control 22-23 October 2013 Beijing, China Young-woo Park Regional Director and Representative for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Environment Programme Bangkok
Major Air Pollutants Carbon di oxide( CO2) : leads to global warming SOx NOx CO Hydro Carbon (HC) Lead Particulate Matter
Common Sources of Air Pollution Common sources of air pollution are industrial and domestic stationary sources, mobile sources, marine emissions, solid-waste burning, rural area sources, and terrestrial and transport sources Source of Air PollutionExamples / Components IndustrialPower plants and boilers; CO2, SOx, NOx, Particulate matter DomesticFuel used for cooking, heating etc; CO2, SOx, NOx, Particulate matter MarineBurning of furnace oil; PM, SOx, HC Solid Waste burningOpen field solid waste burning Rural AreaFuel used for domestic purposes, open field burning of agriculture waste Terrestrial and TransportVehicles using fuel and terrestrial sources like dust storms etc. BURNING OF FOSSIL FUELS IS THE MAJOR SOURCE OF AIR POLLUTION
World : Exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 um or less (PM10) in 1100 urban areas, 2003–2010
World : Population using solid fuels (%), 2010: total
Major Causes of Air Pollution Large scale urbanization – unplanned growth of cities Increase in industrialization Rapid change in land use ; deforestation etc Poor transport planning – increase in use of personal mode of transportation Subsidies on energy sources Perpetuation of old and inefficient technologies Lack of cost internalization Lack of market pressure
Constrains for Asian Countries Access to clean technology - TECHNOLOGY Loose or no standards and regulatory mechanisms - POLICY Poor monitoring and enforcement Lack of long term vision and planning Low capacity of institutions to tackle the issue, need for a holistic approach- CAPACITY Financial capacity to bring in immediate change
Co-benefits of Action on air pollution Improved Health Reduced global warming – mitigating climate change Leads to energy security Higher crop yields
Interventions required Supporting countries to develop policies and targeted technological interventions Development of regional standards and protocols Creating framework for access to clean technologies Institutional capacity building Programs targeting – freight movements, clean fuels, vehicle standards etc. Awareness raising
UNEP facilitated intergovernmental networks Asia-Pacific East and Southeast Asia- Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) (UNEP Secretariat) South Asia- Malé Declaration on Air Pollution (UNEP Secretariat) Southeast Asia- Treaty on the control of haze pollution from forest clearance (UNEP facilitated) Central Asia- Environmental treaty considering air pollution as a major issue (UNEP facilitated) Asian-Pacific- Network of networks on atmospheric Environmental Issues (UNEP Secretariat)
Other related UNEP Work Secretariat of Climate and clean air collation Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) data development and analysis of fuel economy potentials, support for national, regional awareness and policy making efforts The Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) access information to organizations & networks, workshops on clean fleet management to support efficient vehicles policies
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