Presentation on theme: "Energy Technologies for the Poor Technology for poverty alleviation: Relevance and Prospects in South Asia October 10-11, 2003 British Council, New Delhi."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Technologies for the Poor Technology for poverty alleviation: Relevance and Prospects in South Asia October 10-11, 2003 British Council, New Delhi Bikash Pandey Country Representative, Nepal Winrock International.
Where do the poor in South Asia get their energy from? South Asia poor: dollar poor < $2/day 84%, <$1/day 41%, calorie poor 29%. Biomass – cooking, heating. Primary energy 70% of population. Biomass meets 33% (India, Pakistan) to > 80% (Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh). Fossil fuel increasing - urban, biomass % decreasing but absolute amounts increasing into future. Transportation needs met by fossil fuels. Milling, water pumping, lighting, communications powered by national grid, diesel, or small-scale renewables.
Energy Consumption Nepal
Commercial Energy Consumption in South Asia
Meeting Millennium Development Goals – role of energy services Halving extreme poverty Halving the number of people living with hunger Achieving universal education Promoting gender equality Reducing mortality/improving health Ensuring environmental sustainability
Practical ways to meet goals Use both centralized and decentralized services, innovatively. Distributed services – non-electricity services, multiple institutions, polycentric, lower cost, shared investment by users. Grid expansion – expensive but more versatile. Need for community mobilization.
Rural Energy Services - Nepal 80,000 new households on grid per year, 30,000 in rural areas. < population increase. Money loser for utility. Decentralized energy services – together reaching around 120,000 new households each year, all in rural areas: Biogas: 20,000 Mainstream or alternative? Solar PV: 15,000 Micro-hydro:10,000 Micro-hydro milling: 25,000 Improved cook stoves: 50,000 > 2/3rds investment by users.
Scenario - 50% of households with modern energy
Decentralized Rural Energy Services - Biogas Implemented by Biogas Support Programme. Family biogas plants: 100,000 installed by end of 2002; Around 20,000 new plants being installed in Indicators of success > 98% functioning well. Real prices reduced by 30% in 10 years. Feeding rate increased to 98%. Average size down to 6.02 m 3. Higher per capita than India and catching up with China! Successful model based on Intelligently designed program Independence in implementation High Quality and Reliable Product!
Rural Energy Services - Biogas Subsidy effectively used to leverage: high quality installations and competition among 40 private suppliers; Quality of after sales support; Increase feeding rate by promoting smaller plants. Substantial social benefits Reduction in fuel collection, cooking and cleaning time of 3 hours a day Health benefits from reduction in indoor air pollution Better compost Reduced deforestation and CO2 emissions Global benefits: Plant pays for itself with the CO 2 emissions abated over its life – 100 tons of CO 2.
Challenges to Mainstreaming Distributed Energy Services Models –Replication of working models Market – based with Quality control, biogas and solar PV, Community Mobilization, micro-hydro, plantations, Scaling up numbers, capacity building. –New models needed Making micro-credit available to the RET sector. Income generation coupled with RET promotion. HELP. Peoples’ participation in extending centralized services.
Challenges Broadening of vision of “energy for the poor” Non-electricity services Centralized and decentralized working together Keeping the focus - Sustainable long term funding from government, levy on commercial energy, carbon - CDM. Governance - Keeping programs robust against political interference and corruption.