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BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Vocabulary Understanding of Layer 1 & Layer 2 Networking Professionals need a basic understanding.

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Presentation on theme: "BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Vocabulary Understanding of Layer 1 & Layer 2 Networking Professionals need a basic understanding."— Presentation transcript:

1 BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Vocabulary Understanding of Layer 1 & Layer 2 Networking Professionals need a basic understanding

2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE All matter is composed of atoms –Listed on Periodic Table

3 ATOMIC PARTS –Nucleus Center of the atom –Protons and neutrons –Protons Positively charged particles –Neutrons Neutral change –Electrons Negative charge Orbit the nucleus

4 HELIUM EXAMPLE Bohr’s Model Atomic Number = 2 Atomic Weight = 4 Atomic Weight - Atomic Number = # of Neutrons 2 Neutrons 2 Protons 2 Electrons

5 ATOMIC SCALE Protons & Neutrons the size of a soccer ball Electrons the size of cherries Nucleus in the middle of a soccer field Electrons orbiting at the outermost seats of the stadium

6 COULOMB’S ELECTRIC FORCE LAW Opposite charges attract Like charges repel The closer the charges come, the greater the force of attraction or repulsion

7 WHY DON’T THE ELECTRONS FLY IN TOWARD THE PROTONS? The electrons have just enough orbiting velocity to prevent being pulled into the nucleus Weak force

8 WHY DON’T THE PROTONS FLY AWAY FROM EACH OTHER? Nuclear force is associated with Neutrons Incredibly strong force which holds the Protons together

9 ELECTRICITY Nuclear forces bind the nucleus together strongly Weak force holds the electrons in orbit –If the electrons are pulled free from the atom, they can be made to flow Electricity is the “free flow of electrons”

10 STATIC ELECTRICITY Loosened electrons, negatively charged, that stay in one place Prone to “jump” to a conductor –Leads to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Usually harmless to people Can randomly damage computer chips and/or data –Proper handling techniques essential »ESD straps, mats »handle components by non- conducting edges

11 MATERIALS Atoms & Molecules (groups of atoms) Classified by the ease with which free electrons (electricity) flow through them –Insulators –Conductors –Semiconductors

12 INSULATORS Electrons flow with great difficulty or not at all Plastic, glass, air, dry wood, paper, rubber, helium gas Very stable chemical structures –Orbiting electrons tightly bound within the atom

13 CONDUCTORS Electrons flow very easily Best conductors are metals: copper, silver, gold Also good conductors: solder (lead and tin) and ionized water –An ion is an atom with more or less electrons that a neutral atom –An ion is, therefore, a charged particle –Human body is 70% ionized water, so it conducts well Outermost electrons of the atom are loosely bound and readily freed

14 SEMICONDUCTORS Flow of electrons can be precisely controlled Most important: silicon Also carbon, germanium, gallium arsenide

15 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT TERMS Voltage Current –Alternating Current –Direct Current Resistance Impedance Ground

16 VOLTAGE Electrical pressure due to the separation of electrical charge (+ and -) –e.g. batteries Can also be created by friction (static electricity), by magnetism (generator), or by light (solar cell) Represented by V Unit of measurement is volt Definition: The amount of work, per unit charge, needed to separate the charges

17 CURRENT Flow of charged particles –usually electrons Voltage causes currents –When voltage (electrical pressure) is applied, and there is a path for the current, electrons move from the negative terminal (repelled) to the positive terminal (attracted) Represented by I Unit of measurement ampere (amp) Definition: Number of charges per second that pass by a point along a path

18 ALTERNATING CURRENT Current and voltages vary with time by changing polarity (direction) –AC flows from positive to negative –Polarity of terminal is reversed –AC flows in other direction –Process repeats continuously Carried on utility power lines

19 DIRECT CURRENT Always flows in the same direction DC voltages always have the same polarity –Terminal polarities do not change Battery power, power for microchips on the motherboard

20 RESISTANCE Property of a material that opposes electrical flow Materials with high resistance are insulators Materials with low resistance are conductors Amount of resistance depends on the chemical composition of the material Represented by R Unit of measurement is ohm (W or Ω) Generally used to refer to DC current

21 IMPEDANCE Total opposition to current flow Analogous to resistance –General term, but applied to AC and pulsed circuits Represented by Z Unit of measurement is ohm (W or Ω)

22 GROUND Term is used in many ways Can mean the place on the earth that touches a building –gives electrons an extra conducting path to flow to the earth –protects your body from shock Can mean the 0 volts reference level for electrical measurements –Voltage is created by the separation of charges measurement must be made between two points

23 VOLTAGE, CURRENT, AND RESISTANCE WORKING TOGETHER Electrons flow in closed loops called circuits –Voltage causes current to flow –Loop must be made of a conducting material –Resistance and Impedance oppose the flow of current Using Voltage and Resistance/Impedance allows people to control the flow of a current Multimeters measure voltage, current, resistance/impedance

24 GRAPHING AC & DC VOLTAGE Oscilloscopes –Device used to study electrical signals: X-axis represents time Y-axis represents voltage

25 A SIMPLE SERIES CIRCUIT Chemical processes in the battery cause separation of charges which provides a voltage to “push” the electrons along the conducting wire Switch allows the circuit to be open (current flows) or closed (no current flow) Bulb provides resistance Electrons release energy in the form of light

26 GROUNDING EQUIPMENT Outlets have two power connectors plus a safety ground connector –Safety ground wire in electrical equipment (including computing equipment) is connected to exposed metal –Prevents metal parts from being energized with hazardous voltage Electrical current follows path of least resistance and drains off to earth Protects body by diverting current

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