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Chapter 13 Electricity. Charge and Force All matter is made of atoms that contain electrons, neutrons, and protons All matter is made of atoms that contain.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Electricity. Charge and Force All matter is made of atoms that contain electrons, neutrons, and protons All matter is made of atoms that contain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Electricity

2 Charge and Force All matter is made of atoms that contain electrons, neutrons, and protons All matter is made of atoms that contain electrons, neutrons, and protons Recall that protons and electrons in atoms have electric charge Recall that protons and electrons in atoms have electric charge Electrons have a negative charge Electrons have a negative charge Protons have a positive charge Protons have a positive charge When an object has an equal number of protons and electrons, the object has no charge When an object has an equal number of protons and electrons, the object has no charge

3 Neutrons have no charge Neutrons have no charge Neutrons have no effect on the charge Neutrons have no effect on the charge Charges in objects can produce a force between the objects Charges in objects can produce a force between the objects Objects are forced together or attracted when their charges are different Objects are forced together or attracted when their charges are different Opposite charges attract Opposite charges attract Same electric charges they push apart Same electric charges they push apart Like charges repel Like charges repel

4 Moving charges. Electrons can be moved around Electrons can be moved around Rubbing fur or cloth against rubber (like a balloon) will move some electrons from the cloth to the balloon Rubbing fur or cloth against rubber (like a balloon) will move some electrons from the cloth to the balloon Both the cloth and the balloon will have a charge. Both the cloth and the balloon will have a charge. What will the charge on the balloon be? What will the charge on the balloon be? What will the charge on the cloth be? What will the charge on the cloth be?

5 Electric Field Dont have to touch to feel a charge. Dont have to touch to feel a charge. An electric field surrounds all charged objects. An electric field surrounds all charged objects. Electric forces act at a distance because or this field. Electric forces act at a distance because or this field.

6 Static Electricity Static means not moving Static means not moving Static electricity is electricity at rest Static electricity is electricity at rest Friction can cause it Friction can cause it Objects rub together and electrons move from one object another. Objects rub together and electrons move from one object another.

7 Two ways to move electrons Conduction: electrons are transferred by direct contact. Conduction: electrons are transferred by direct contact. Induction: electrons on an object are rearranged without physical contact. Induction: electrons on an object are rearranged without physical contact.

8 Two types of materials Conductors: a material through which electric charges move easily. Conductors: a material through which electric charges move easily. Metals are good conductors Metals are good conductors Insulators: a material through which electric charges cant move easily. Insulators: a material through which electric charges cant move easily. Plastics, rubber, ceramics, wood Plastics, rubber, ceramics, wood

9 Electroscope Flask Flask Metal bar (conductor) through rubber stopper (insulator) Metal bar (conductor) through rubber stopper (insulator) Two pieces of thin foil on the bottom Two pieces of thin foil on the bottom Charge on the metal will push the foil apart Charge on the metal will push the foil apart because they have the same charge because they have the same charge

10 Electroscope No Charge- leaves hang straight down

11 Induction Rod with negative charge

12 Induction Rod with negative charge Pushes electrons in electroscope down

13 Induction Rod with negative charge Pushes electrons in electroscope down Extra negative charge

14 Induction Rod with negative charge Pushes electrons in electroscope down Extra negative charge Leaves move apart

15 Induction Remove rod everything returns

16 Conduction Rod with negative charge

17 Conduction Rod with negative charge

18 Conduction Rod with negative charge Transfers electrons

19 Conduction Rod with negative charge Transfers electrons Extra negative charge

20 Conduction Rod with negative charge Transfers electrons Extra negative charge Moves leaves apart.

21 Conduction Remove rod leaves stay apart.

22 Static discharge Eventually static electric charge will move. Eventually static electric charge will move. Slowly the electrons may move into moisture in the air Slowly the electrons may move into moisture in the air Or quickly in a spark. Or quickly in a spark.

23 Lightning Wind rubs particles in cloud together Wind rubs particles in cloud together Cloud gains charge Cloud gains charge Induce charge in ground Induce charge in ground Eventually a big charge jumps Eventually a big charge jumps Lightning rod protects buildings Lightning rod protects buildings

24 Electric Current Electrons in motion. Electrons in motion. Current: The number of electrons that pass a specific point in a circuit in one second Current: The number of electrons that pass a specific point in a circuit in one second Voltage: how hard the electrons are being pushed. Voltage: how hard the electrons are being pushed. Circuit: electric current flows through a closed, continuous path. Circuit: electric current flows through a closed, continuous path.

25 Generating Electric Current Electrochemical cell: (battery) changes chemical energy into electric energy. Two types wet cell and dry cell. Electrochemical cell: (battery) changes chemical energy into electric energy. Two types wet cell and dry cell. Thermocouples: a tool that uses differences in temperature to generate electric currents. Thermocouples: a tool that uses differences in temperature to generate electric currents. Generator- next chapter but make alternating current Generator- next chapter but make alternating current

26 Types of current Direct current: electrons that flow in the same direction in a wire. (DC) Direct current: electrons that flow in the same direction in a wire. (DC) From batteries From batteries Alternating current: electrons that flow in different directions in a wire. (AC) Alternating current: electrons that flow in different directions in a wire. (AC) From Genrators From Genrators Used in your home Used in your home Transformers change AC to DC Transformers change AC to DC

27 Measuring Electricity Current: The number of electrons that pass a specific point in a circuit in one second Current: The number of electrons that pass a specific point in a circuit in one second Measured in Amperes or amps (A) Measured in Amperes or amps (A) Voltage: how hard the electrons are being pushed Voltage: how hard the electrons are being pushed Measured in volts (V) Measured in volts (V) Higher voltage, the more work the electrons can do. Higher voltage, the more work the electrons can do.

28 Measuring Electricity Resistance: the force opposing the flow of electrons. Resistance: the force opposing the flow of electrons. Measured in ohms Measured in ohms Symbol is Greek letter omega Symbol is Greek letter omega Thicker wire- less resistance Thicker wire- less resistance Longer wire- more resistance Longer wire- more resistance Conductors- low resistance Conductors- low resistance Insulators- high resistance Insulators- high resistance

29 Ohms Law The relationship among current, voltage, and resistance. The relationship among current, voltage, and resistance. Ohms law states that the current in a circuit is equal to the voltage divided by the resistance Ohms law states that the current in a circuit is equal to the voltage divided by the resistance I = V R I = V R V I R

30 Do the Math A car has a 12 volt system. The headlights are on a 10 amp circuit. How much resistance do they have? A car has a 12 volt system. The headlights are on a 10 amp circuit. How much resistance do they have? Your house uses 120 volts. What amount of current would flow through a 20 ohm resistor? Your house uses 120 volts. What amount of current would flow through a 20 ohm resistor?

31 Circuits For current to flow there must be a complete loop For current to flow there must be a complete loop Electric circuit: complete, a closed path through which electrons travel. Electric circuit: complete, a closed path through which electrons travel. Electrons flow from negative to positive terminal Electrons flow from negative to positive terminal Work is done if there is a resistance in the wire. Work is done if there is a resistance in the wire.

32 Circuits Resistance is supplied by a resistor. Resistance is supplied by a resistor. A resistor is a device that uses electric energy to do work. A resistor is a device that uses electric energy to do work. A wire connected from the resistor to the positive terminal completes the circuit. A wire connected from the resistor to the positive terminal completes the circuit. An open switch breaks the circuit. An open switch breaks the circuit.

33 Two Types of Circuits Series circuits: A circuit with only one path. Series circuits: A circuit with only one path. All the resistors in a series circuit lie along a single path. All the resistors in a series circuit lie along a single path. The amount of current in a series circuit is the same at all parts of the circuit. The amount of current in a series circuit is the same at all parts of the circuit. Resistance in the circuit changes if resistors are added or taken away. Resistance in the circuit changes if resistors are added or taken away.

34 Series Circuits

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37 Break in the wire turns off all the lights

38 Parallel Circuit Parallel circuits: The electrons in a parallel circuit can travel through more than one path, each path is separate. Parallel circuits: The electrons in a parallel circuit can travel through more than one path, each path is separate. If theres a break in one path in the circuit, electrons can still flow through the other paths and maintain a complete circuit. If theres a break in one path in the circuit, electrons can still flow through the other paths and maintain a complete circuit.

39 Parallel Circuit

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41 Parallel circuits in your home allow each light or appliance to use the amount of current it needs to work. Parallel circuits in your home allow each light or appliance to use the amount of current it needs to work. A parallel circuit prevents all the lights or appliances from shutting off when one of them stops working. A parallel circuit prevents all the lights or appliances from shutting off when one of them stops working.

42 Electric power and energy Power: The rate at which electricity does work or provides energy The amount of electric power a device uses to do work is determined by its resistance. Power: The rate at which electricity does work or provides energy The amount of electric power a device uses to do work is determined by its resistance. P = V x I P = V x I (P) power = (V) voltage x (I) current in the circuit. (P) power = (V) voltage x (I) current in the circuit.

43 Formula for energy Formula for energy E = P x t E = P x t (E) energy used = (P) power x (t) time (E) energy used = (P) power x (t) time The SI unit for energy is a joule. The SI unit for energy is a joule. Kilowatt-hour meters measure the electricity used in your home. Kilowatt-hour meters measure the electricity used in your home. (kWh) (kWh)

44 Electric safety Many appliances are equipped with a ground wire on the plug. Many appliances are equipped with a ground wire on the plug. The ground wire prevents electric shock. The rounded third prong of a three-way electric plug is attached to the ground wire. The ground wire prevents electric shock. The rounded third prong of a three-way electric plug is attached to the ground wire. It constantly moves static electricity from the appliance to the ground. It constantly moves static electricity from the appliance to the ground.

45 Broken wires or water can cause electric appliances to short-circuit. Broken wires or water can cause electric appliances to short-circuit. A short circuit occurs when electricity takes a short path and bypasses the resistors in the circuit. A short circuit occurs when electricity takes a short path and bypasses the resistors in the circuit. Because of this the resistance of the circuit is less and the circuit wire increases. Because of this the resistance of the circuit is less and the circuit wire increases. The increased current can produce enough heat to melt wires and start a fire, or cause serious electric shock. The increased current can produce enough heat to melt wires and start a fire, or cause serious electric shock.

46 Circuit protectors Fuses and circuit breakers protect against overloaded circuits. Fuses and circuit breakers protect against overloaded circuits. A number on the fuse indicates the max. current that will flow through it. A number on the fuse indicates the max. current that will flow through it. Circuit breakers are often used in place of fuses.A circuit breaker is a switch that opens automatically when electric current in a circuit reaches its max. Circuit breakers are often used in place of fuses.A circuit breaker is a switch that opens automatically when electric current in a circuit reaches its max.


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