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Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance SEVENTH EDITION Chapter Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance SEVENTH EDITION Chapter Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance SEVENTH EDITION Chapter Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display outside of classroom use. Factors Affecting Performance

2 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Objectives 1.Identify factors affecting maximal performance. 2.Provide evidence for and against the central nervous system being a site of fatigue. 3.Identify potential neural factors in the periphery that may be linked to fatigue. 4.Explain the role of cross-bridge cycling in fatigue. 5.Summarize the evidence on the order of recruitment of muscle fibers with increasing intensities of activity and the type of metabolism upon which each is dependent.

3 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Objectives 6.Describe the factors limiting performance in all-out activities lasting less than ten seconds. 7.Describe the factors limiting performance in all-out activities lasting 10 to 180 seconds. 8.Discuss the subtle changes in the factors affecting optimal performance as the duration of maximal performance increase from three minutes to four hours.

4 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Outline Sites of Fatigue Central Fatigue Peripheral Fatigue Factors Limiting All- Out Anaerobic Performances Ultra Short-Term Performances (Less than Ten Seconds) Short-Term Performances (10 to 180 Seconds) Factors Limiting All- Out Aerobic Performances Moderate-Length Performances (Three to Twenty Minutes) Intermediate-Length Performances (Twenty- One to Sixty Minutes) Long-Term Performances (One to Four Hours) Athlete as Machine

5 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors Affecting Performance Figure 19.1 Sites of Fatigue

6 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sites of Fatigue Fatigue –Inability to maintain power output or force during repeated muscle contractions Central fatigue –Central nervous system Peripheral fatigue –Neural factors –Mechanical factors –Energetics of contraction Sites of Fatigue

7 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Possible Sites of Fatigue Figure 19.2 Sites of Fatigue

8 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Central Fatigue Reduction in motor units activated Reduction in motor unit firing frequency Central nervous system arousal can alter the state of fatigue –By facilitating motor unit recruitment Increasing motivation Physical or mental diversion Excessive endurance training (overtraining) –Reduced performance, prolonged fatigue, etc. –Related to brain serotonin activity Central Governor model –Conscious and subconscious brain, not spinal cord or motor unit Sites of Fatigue

9 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peripheral Fatigue: Neural Factors Neuromuscular junction –Not a site for fatigue Sarcolemma and transverse tubules –Ability of muscle membrane to conduct an action potential Inability of Na + /K + pump to maintain action potential amplitude and frequency –Can be improved by training –An action potential block in the T-tubules Reduction in Ca +2 release from sarcoplasmic reticulum Sites of Fatigue

10 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary Increases in CNS arousal facilitate motor unit recruitment to increase strength and alter the state of fatigue. The ability of the muscle membrane to conduct an action potential may be related to fatigue in activities demanding a high frequency of stimulation. Repeated stimulation of the sarcolemma can result in a reduction in the size and frequency of action potentials; however, shifts in the optimal frequency needed for muscle activation preserve force output. Under certain conditions an action potential block can occur in the t-tubule to result in a reduction in Ca +2 release from the SR. Sites of Fatigue

11 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peripheral Fatigue: Mechanical Factors Cross-bridge cycling and tension development depends on: –Arrangement of actin and myosin –Ca +2 binding to troponin –ATP availability High H + concentration may contribute to fatigue –Reduce the force per cross-bridge –Reduce the force generated at a given Ca +2 concentration –Inhibit Ca +2 release from SR Longer relaxation time is a sign of fatigue –Due to slower cross-bridge cycling Sites of Fatigue

12 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. A Closer Look 19.1 Radical Production During Exercise Contributes to Muscle Fatigue Exercise promotes free radical formation –Molecules that contain unpaired electron in outer orbital –Capable of damaging proteins, lipids, and DNA Can contribute to fatigue –Damage contractile proteins (myosin and troponin) Limits the number of cross-bridges in strong binding state –Depress sodium/potassium pump activity Disruption of potassium homeostasis Optimal levels of antioxidants can postpone fatigue –High doses can impair muscle function Sites of Fatigue

13 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary The cross-bridge ability to cycle is important in continued tension development. Fatigue may be related to the effect of a high H + concentration on the ability of troponin to bind to Ca +2, the inability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to take up Ca +2, or the lack of ATP needed to dissociate the cross-bridge from actin. Sites of Fatigue

14 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peripheral Fatigue: Energetics of Contraction Imbalance ATP requirements and ATP generating capacity –Accumulation of P i Inhibits maximal force Reduces cross-bridge binding to actin Inhibits Ca +2 release from SR Rate of ATP utilization is slowed faster than rate of ATP utilization –Maintains ATP concentration Sites of Fatigue

15 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary Fatigue is directly associated with a mismatch between the rate at which the muscle uses ATP and the rate at which ATP can be supplied. Cellular fatigue mechanisms slow down the rate of ATP utilization faster than the rate of ATP generation to preserve the ATP concentration and cellular homeostasis. Sites of Fatigue

16 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Peripheral Fatigue: Energetics of Contraction Muscle fiber recruitment in increasing intensities of exercise –Type I Type IIa Type IIx –Up to 40% VO 2 max type I fibers recruited –Type IIa fibers recruited at 40–75% VO 2 max –Exercise >75% VO 2 max requires IIx fibers –Results in increased lactate production Sites of Fatigue

17 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Order of Muscle Fiber Type Recruitment Sites of Fatigue Figure 19.3

18 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary Muscle fibers are recruited in the following order with increasing intensities of exercise: Type I Type IIa Type IIx The progression moves from the most to the least oxidative muscle fiber type. Intense exercise (>75% VO 2 max) demands that type IIx fibers be recruited, resulting in an increase in lactate production. Sites of Fatigue

19 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Ultra Short-Term Performances Events lasting <10 seconds Dependent on recruitment of Type II muscle fibers –Generate great forces that are needed Motivation, skill, and arousal are important Primary energy source is anaerobic –ATP-PC system and glycolysis Creatine supplementation may improve performance Factors Limiting All-Out Anaerobic Performances

20 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors Affecting Fatigue in Ultra Short- Term Events Factors Limiting All-Out Anaerobic Performances Figure 19.4

21 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary In events lasting less than ten seconds, optimal performance is dependent on the recruitment of appropriate type II fibers to generate the great forces needed. Motivation or arousal is required, as well as the skill needed to direct the force. The primary energy sources are anaerobic, with the focus on phosphocreatine. Factors Limiting All-Out Anaerobic Performances

22 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Short-Term Performances Events lasting 10–180 seconds Shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism –70% energy supplied anaerobically at 10s –60% supplied aerobically at 180s Anaerobic glycolysis is primary energy source –Results in elevated lactate and H + levels Interferes with Ca +2 binding with troponin Ingestion of buffers may improve performance Factors Limiting All-Out Anaerobic Performances

23 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors Affecting Fatigue in Short-Term Events Factors Limiting All-Out Anaerobic Performances Figure 19.5

24 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary In short-term performances lasting 10 to 180 seconds, there is a shift from 70% of the energy supplied anaerobically at 10 seconds to 60% being supplied aerobically at 180 seconds. Anaerobic glycolysis provides a substantial portion of the energy, resulting in elevated lactate levels. Factors Limiting All-Out Anaerobic Performances

25 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Moderate-Length Performances Events lasting 3–20 minutes –60% ATP generated aerobically at 3 min –90% ATP supplied aerobically at 20 min High VO 2 max is important –High maximal stroke volume –High arterial oxygen content Hemoglobin content Inspired oxygen Requires energy expenditure near VO 2 max –Type IIx fibers recruited High levels of lactate and H + accumulation Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

26 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors Affecting Fatigue in Aerobic Performances Lasting 3–20 Minutes Figure 19.6 Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

27 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Winning Edge 19.1 Is Maximal Oxygen Uptake Important in Distance Running Performance? VO 2 max sets the upper limit for ATP production in endurance events –Even though race is not run at 100% VO 2 max Performance also determined by: –%VO 2 max at which runner can perform Estimated by the lactate threshold –Running economy Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

28 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary In moderate-length performances lasting three to twenty minutes, aerobic metabolism provides 60% to 90% of the ATP, respectively. These activities require an energy expenditure near VO 2 max, with type II fibers being recruited. Any factor interfering with oxygen delivery (e.g., altitude or anemia) would decrease performance, since it is so dependent on aerobic energy production. High levels of lactate accompany these types of activities. Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

29 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Intermediate-Length Performances Events lasting 21–60 minutes Predominantly aerobic –Usually conducted at <90% VO 2 max –High VO 2 max is important Other important factors –Running economy High percentage of type I muscle fibers –Environmental factors Heat Humidity –State of hydration Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

30 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors Affecting Fatigue in Aerobic Performances Lasting 21–60 Minutes Figure 19.7 Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

31 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary Intermediate-length activities lasting twenty-one to sixty minutes are usually conducted at less than 90% VO 2 max, and are predominantly aerobic. Given the length of the activity, environmental factors such as heat, humidity, and the state of hydration play a role in the outcome. Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

32 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Long-Term Performances Events lasting 1–4 hours –Clearly aerobic Environmental factors more important Maintaining rate of carbohydrate utilization –Muscle and liver glycogen stores decline –Ingestion of carbohydrate Maintain carbohydrate oxidation by the muscle Consumption of fluids and electrolytes Diet also influences performance Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

33 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors Affecting Fatigue in Aerobic Performances Lasting 1–4 Hours Figure 19.8 Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

34 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In Summary In long-term performances of one to four hours duration, environmental factors play a more important role as the muscle and liver glycogen stores try to keep up with the rate at which carbohydrate is used. Diet, fluid ingestion, and the ability of the athlete to deal with heat and humidity all influence the final outcome. Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances

35 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Athlete as Machine Continuing goal to improve performance Potential to treat elite athletes like machines –Collection of parts evaluated by specialists –Implementation of research to improve performance –May be exposing athletes to risk In research or in implementation of techniques Institutional Review Boards –Minimize risk to subjects being studied Athlete as Machine

36 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Study Questions 1.List the factors influencing performance. 2.Is the limiting factor for strength development located in the CNS or out in the periphery? Support your position. 3.Tracing the path the action potential takes from the time it leaves the motor end plate, where might the weak link be in the mechanisms coupling excitation to contraction? 4.When fatigue occurs, there is still ATP present in the cell. What is the explanation for this? 5.Describe the pattern of recruitment of muscle fiber types during activities of progressively greater intensity, and explain them.

37 Chapter 19 Copyright ©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Study Questions 6.As the duration of maximal effort increases from less than ten seconds to 10 to 180 seconds, what factor becomes limiting in terms of energy production? 7.Draw a diagram of the factors limiting maximal running performances of 1,500 m to 10,000 m. 8.While a high VO 2 max is essential to world-class performance, what role does running economy play in a winning performance? 9.Given that lactate accumulation will adversely affect endurance, what test might be an indicator of maximal sustained running (swimming, cycling) speed? 10.What is the role of environmental factors, such as altitude and heat, in very long-distance performances of one to four hours duration?


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