Presentation on theme: "Neuromuscular Adaptations to Conditioning Chapter 2."— Presentation transcript:
Neuromuscular Adaptations to Conditioning Chapter 2
The Nervous System Central (CNS) –Brain –Spinal cord Peripheral –Nerves –Axons
Neuron and Motor Unit Neuron is a single nerve cell neurons in brain Synapses convey information via chemicals Afferent-from periphery to CNS Efferent-from CNS to periphery Neuron body, dendrites and axon (myelin sheath)
Action Potential Alteration in permeability Sodium influx and potassium outflow Negative to positive Nerve conduction velocity –120 m/s or 270mph for myelinated 400 f/s –5 m/s or 2mph for unmyelinated
Neural Components of Muscle Activation Motor unit Acetylcholine (ACH)- primary neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction Frequency of nerve impulses –Twitch –Summation –Tetanus
Electrical Stimulation Motor nerve innervation Latent period (.01) Contraction phase (.04) Relaxation phase (.05) Fast vs. slow time varies
Threshold AP results from the quick and dramatic alteration to ionic permeability following chemical or electrical intervention. Muscle resting at -90 millivolts After stimulation of an excitable cell membrane sodium ions move into the cell and the transmembrane potential is reduced - referred to as depolarization When a critical voltage level called the threshold is reached, voltage-sensitive sodium gates are opened followed by slower acting potassium gates (move out) At +35 millivolts the sodium channels and the potassium channels are fully opened, resulting in restoration of the negative transmembrane potential - called repolarization The amplitude of voltage changes in response to stimulation is constant from stimulus to stimulus and is described as "all or none" Electrical stimulation of excitable cells is possible up to 1000 pps.
Temperature Heat increases speed and force output. Cooling increases relaxation time. Heat may increase speed by 20%.
Size Principle of Muscle Recruitment TYPE I TYPE IIa TYPE IIb % FIBERS USED% FIBERS USED MUSCULAR FORCE
Reflexes Sensory receptors send a signal to a motor neuron Motor neuron sends signal to the effector Stretch shortening cycle (SSC)?
Stretch Shortening Cycle Concentric force is increased as a function of eccentric action or stretching. Increased force with speed of the motion. Stored elastic energy responsible.
Fatigue Repeated contractions diminish relaxation time. Neural signals continue to propagate. Contracture occurs at the muscle site.
Mechanical Factors Angle of pull is optimum at right angles or 90 degrees to the bone. Length is optimum at midpoint or resting length.
Exercise Modes Isokinetic=constant velocity. Isotonic=constant resistance (DCER). Isometric=static and without muscle movement.
Neuromuscular Adaptations to Exercise Hypertrophy- enlargement and increase in number of muscle myofibrils (not fibers), increasing the size of actin and myosin Hyperplasia-increase in the number of fibers (not in humans, only in birds). Fast twitch muscle fibers hypertrophy to a greater extent than slow twitch muscle fibers Early increases in muscle strength have a large neural component Long term increases in strength also have a neural component
Moritani and deVries Hypertrophy vs. Learning
Atrophy vs. Hypertrophy
Electromyography (EMG) Records electrical signals from the brain. EMG reflects muscle activation. Surface electrodes (summated) or fine needle electrodes (individual). Amplitude increases with recruitment (summation). Integration of signal equals true mean of firing (RMS).
EMG cont… Positive relationship between EMG and force/velocity. A measure of intensity. Efficiency of electrical activity = stronger individuals require less activation. Learning curve demonstrates greater force with less EMG.
EMG and Fatigue EMG increases with fatigue. Recruitment responsible. Local fatigue is a function of individual muscle and joint.
Resistance Training and Aerobic Power Resistance training does not improve aerobic power Resistance training does not impair an individuals ability to develop maximal aerobic power Aerobic training does not enhance muscle strength or size Aerobic training may compromise the benefits of strength training on muscle force production