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Today –Role of calcium –Muscle fiber membrane potential & contraction –Neural control of muscle.

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Presentation on theme: "Today –Role of calcium –Muscle fiber membrane potential & contraction –Neural control of muscle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Today –Role of calcium –Muscle fiber membrane potential & contraction –Neural control of muscle

2 Role of calcium Troponin complex Tropomyosin Troponin and Tropomyosin bind to actin block the actin – myosin binding sites Troponin is a calcium binding protein

3 When Troponin binds calcium it moves Tropomyosin away from the actin-myosin binding site Ca

4 Where does Calcium come from? Intracellular storage called Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Surround each myofibril of the whole muscle Contains high concentration of calcium Transverse Tubules connects plasma membrane to deep inside muscle

5 Myofibril Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Transverse tubules

6 So far: –Actin and myosin will bind to each other –Troponin / tropomyosin inhibit this –Calcium removes inhibition

7 What controls muscle calcium? What else do we know? –Neurons initiate muscle contraction at NMJs by generating postsynaptic potentials (some muscle fibers have APs) Maybe muscle membrane potential is important

8 Muscle fiber Tension Vm Stimulate nerve Tension Vm Time Muscle AP Force Transducer Excitation-Contraction coupling:1 ‘twitch’

9 Vm Tension Force Transducer Vary [K+] outside Vm (mV) Tension Conclusion: Muscle contraction occurs with Vm depolarization Muscle fiber Excitation-Contraction coupling:2

10 Why T-tubules important? Stimulate near T-tubule see contraction of adjoining sarcomeres No contractions T-tubule ‘Local stimulation’

11 Motor nerve Neurotransmitter receptors Membrane depolarization or APs carried deep into the muscle by T- tubules + T-tubule SR

12 Text Fig Myofibril Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Transverse tubules

13 My T-tubule SR Ryanodine Receptor Dihydropyridine receptor myoplasm

14 T-tubule (extracellular) SR Myoplasm (intracellular) _ _ _ _ _ _ Ca++ _ _ _ _ _ _ Ca++ pump

15 1.Synaptic Depolarization of the plasma membrane is carried into the muscle by T-Tubules 2.Conformational change of dihydropyridine receptor directly opens the ryanodine receptor calcium channel 3.Calcium flows into myoplasm where it binds troponin 4.Calcium pumped back into SR Summary of events

16 Neural Control of Muscle –Voluntary –Reflex

17 Neural control of muscle contraction Motor Pool: all of the motor neurons that innervate a single muscle Motor Unit: single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates –a few fibers  1000s of fibers

18 Size of the motor units determines precision of movement  Fingers have small motor units, legs have big motor units Recruitment of twitch fibers Smallest motor units to a single muscle are recruited first Why? Allow smooth generation of movement

19 First Little force Second More force Even more force Third = maximum force Whole muscle Individual myofibrils Motor neurons

20 Reflex control of muscle contraction Two sensory receptors 1.Muscle Spindle Monitors muscle length 2.Golgi Tendon Organ Monitors muscle tension

21 Muscle Spindle  Motor neurons Group I and II Sensory fibers Intrafusal Muscle fibers Extrafusal Muscle fibers Muscle Spindle  Motor neurons

22 Muscle spindle Extrafusal muscle fibers nerve

23  motor neurons innervate extrafusal muscle fibers and cause the muscle to contract  motot neurons innervate only the intrafusal muscle fibers and cause them to contract The sensory endings in the muscle spindle are activated by muscle lengthening

24 Isolated muscle Ia sensory neuron  Motor neurons Muscle stretch Muscle length APs in sensory APs in motor Spinal cord Longer  AP

25 Effect of muscle spindle When muscle stretches, spindle stretches 1.Increase APs in 1a sensory neuron 2.Increase APs in motor neuron 3.Muscle contracts and returns to original length (almost)

26 When muscle contracts, spindle shortens –Might expect activity of spindle to decrease BUT –To maintain sensitivity of the spindle, the intrafusal fibers also contract –Controlled by  motor neurons

27 Muscle Spindle  Motor neurons Extrafusal Muscle fibers  Motor neurons Group I and II Sensory fibers Intrafusal Muscle fibers

28 Muscle length longer shorter  Motor neuron Ia sensory neuron stimulate record APs in sensory -  Motor neuron only

29 Muscle length longer shorter  Motor neuron Ia sensory neuron stimulate record  Motor neuron APs in sensory -  Motor neuron only APs in sensory -  and  Motor neurons

30 Muscle Spindle  motor neurons permit muscle spindle to function at all muscle lengths Maintains sensitivity of the spindle

31 Ia sensory neuron Muscle spindle  Motor neurons Inhibitory interneuron Spinal cord

32 Golgi Tendon Organ Operates like muscle spindle, but monitors muscle tension (force) Negative feedback because they inhibit the muscle they are located in

33 APs from GTO Muscle length longer shorter Increased APs during contraction Very little at rest Golgi Tendon Organ

34 sensory neuron Golgi tendon organ  Motor neurons Inhibitory interneuron Spinal cord

35 MuscleSpindle Response Tendon Organ Response Passive Stretch Increase APs Decrease APs Active Contraction No change Increase APs

36 Summary Muscle Spindles –Monitor muscle length –When activated cause contraction Golgi Tendon Organ –Monitor muscle tension –When activated reduce contraction

37 Whole muscle physiology Types of skeletal muscle fibers Neural control of muscle contraction Production of force

38 Classification of muscle fiber types 1.Electrical properties of muscle membrane – does muscle have APs? 2.Maximal rate of contraction (Vmax) determined by myosin ATPase activity 3.Density of SR calcium pumps 4.Density of mitochondria and blood supply

39 Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types: 1.Tonic 2.Twitch (or Phasic) a.Slow oxidative ( Type I ) b.Fast oxidative ( Type IIa ) c.Fast glycolytic ( Type IIb )

40 Tonic fibers –Very slow contractions –Do not produce APs  do not twitch –Postural muscles

41 Twitch muscles Slow oxidative (Type I) –Contract slowly –Resist fatigue –Postural Fast Oxidative –High rate of contraction –Moderately resistant to fatigue –Rapid, repetitive motion (flight muscles migratory birds) Fast Glycolytic –Rapid contraction –Rapid fatigue

42 Non-twitch fibers Many arthropods (crayfish, insects) do not have muscle APs Rather they have graded synaptic potentials Calcium released from SR in graded manner Degree of contraction depends on summation and facilitation of neural input

43 Tension Vm Time Muscle AP Tension Vm Time Summation of Synaptic Potential

44 Non-twitch fibers Graded potential  graded contraction Even large motor units can have precise contraction

45 Force is proportional to cross- sectional area

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