Presentation on theme: "C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to Describe the patterns and changes in what goods."— Presentation transcript:
2 C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S TWhen you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able toDescribe the patterns and changes in what goods and services are produced in the United States.1Describe the patterns and changes in how goods and services are produced in the United States.2Describe for whom goods and services are produced in the United States.3Use the circular flow model to provide a picture of how households, firms, and governments interact to determine what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced.4
3 2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED? What We ConsumePeople buy millions of different goods and services.We can describe what people buy and consume only if we classify goods and services in large groups.Let’s look at the items that people spend most on.
4 2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED? Figure 2.1(a) showswhat we consume.Americans spend the largest share of their income on:Medical careHousingTransportationFoodRecreation
6 2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED? Figure 2.1(b) showsthat Americans spend:A falling share of total expenditure on foodand other necessities.An increasing share on services, such as meals away from home
7 2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED? What We ProduceBusinesses located in the United States produce most of the goods and services that people in the United States buy.Businesses in the rest of the world produce goods and services that the United States imports.The largest part of what we produce today is services, not goods.
8 2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED? Figure 2.2 shows the largest five items of services produced.And the largest five items of goods produced.
9 2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED? What We Buy from the Rest of the WorldFigure 2.3 shows the five largest items that we buy and import from the rest of the world.
10 The productive resources used to produce goods and services. 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?Factors of productionThe productive resources used to produce goods and services.Factors of production are grouped into four categories:LandLaborCapitalEntrepreneurship
11 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Land The “gifts of nature” that we use to produce goods and services. All the things we call natural resources.LaborWork time and work effort that people devote to producing goods and services
12 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Capital Tools, instruments, machines, buildings, and other constructions that have been produced in the past and that businesses now use to produce goods and services.EntrepreneurshipThe human resource that organizes labor, land, and capital--entrepreneurs come up with ideas about what and how to produce, make business decisions, and bear the risks that arise from these decisions.
13 Land 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Figure 2.4(a) shows that almost 50 percent of the land in the United States forest, parks, and water.Agricultural land is about 47 percent of the total and is decreasing slightly.Urban land is about 5 percent of the total and is increasing slightly.
14 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?Figure 2.4(b) shows the urban distribution.A quarter lives in the six largest cities.Almost a third live in the ten largest cities.More than a half lives in cities that exceed 1 million.
15 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?Figure 2.5 shows how long the known reserves of nonrenewable energy resources will last at the current growth rates of use.New reserves are constantly being discovered.
16 Labor 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Human capital The quantity of labor depends on the size of the working age population and the number of people in that age group that decides to take a job.The quality of labor depends on human capital.Human capitalThe knowledge and skill that people obtain from education, on-the-job training, and work experience.
17 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Figure 2.6 shows the U.S. labor force and how it haschangedsince 1980.
18 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?Figure 2.7 shows measures of human capital and how they have changed since 1910.
19 Capital 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED? In addition to human capital, economists distinguish between two meanings of capital—financial capital and physical capital.Financial capital consists of the funds that firms use to buy physical capital.The factor of production is physical capital.The value of capital grows steadily over time.
20 Entrepreneurship 2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED? The quantity and quality of entrepreneurship is hard to describe and measure.But we can easily recognize brilliant entrepreneurs by their enormous financial success.Sam Walton (Wal-Mart), Bill Gates (Microsoft), and Michael Dell (Dell Computers) are examples of outstanding entreprenuers.
21 2.3 FOR WHOM ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Factors of production are paid incomes:RentIncome paid for the use of land.WagesIncome paid for the services of labor.InterestIncome paid for the use of capital.
22 2.3 FOR WHOM ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Profit (or loss)Income earned by an entrepreneur for running a business.Functional distribution of incomeThe percentage distribution of income among the factors of production.Personal distribution of incomeThe percentage distribution of income among individual persons.
23 2.3 FOR WHOM ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Figure 2.8(a) shows the functional distribution of income:Labor income 72%Proprietors’ income 9%Personal rental income 2%Corporate income 9 %Net interest income 8%
24 2.3 FOR WHOM ARE GOODS PRODUCED? Figure 2.8(b) shows the personal distribution of income.The poorest 20% earned only 5% of total income.The richest 20% earned 47% of total income.
25 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS Circular flow model A model of the economy that shows:The circular flow of expenditures and incomes thatresult from decision makers’ choices and the way thosechoices interact in markets to determine what, how, andfor whom goods and services are produced.
26 Households and Firms 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS Households Individuals or people living together as decision-making units.FirmsInstitutions that organize production of goods and services.
27 Markets 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS A market is any arrangement that brings buyers and sellers together and enables them to get information and do business with each other.Factor markets are markets in which factors of production are bought and sold.Goods markets are markets in which goods and services are bought and sold.
28 Real Flows and Money Flows 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSReal Flows and Money FlowsIn factor markets:Households supply factors of productionFirms hire factors of production.In goods markets:Firms supply goods and services produced.Households buy goods and services.
29 Real Flows and Money Flows 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSReal Flows and Money FlowsThese are the real flows in the economyMoney flows run in the opposite direction to the real flows.
30 Real Flows and Money Flows 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSReal Flows and Money FlowsFirms pay households incomes for the services of factors of production.Households pay firms for the goods and services they buy.These are the money flows.The blue flows are incomes.The red flows are expenditures.
31 Governments 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS We divide governments into two broad levels:Federal governmentState and local governmentFederal GovernmentThe federal government’s major expenditures are to provide:Goods and servicesSocial security and welfare benefitsTransfers to state and local governments
32 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSThe federal government finances its expenditures by collecting taxes.The main taxes are:Personal income taxesCorporate (business) taxesSocial security taxesDuring the early 2000s, the federal government is spending and collecting in taxes more than $2 trillion a year—about 20 cents in every dollar earned.
33 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS State and Local Governments State and local governments expenditures provide:Goods and servicesWelfare benefitsState and local governments finance these expenditures by collecting taxes.The main taxes levied are:Sales taxesProperty taxesState income taxes
34 Government in the Circular Flow 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSGovernment in the Circular FlowHouseholds and firms pay taxes and receive transfers.Governments buy goods and services from firms.
35 Federal Government Expenditures 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSFederal Government ExpendituresFigure 2.11(a) shows federal government expenditures.
36 Federal Government Revenue 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSFederal Government RevenueFigure 2.11(b) shows federal government revenue.
37 Federal Government Expenditures and Revenue 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSFederal Government Expenditures and RevenueNational debtThe total amount that the government has borrowed to make expenditures that exceed tax revenue—to run a government budget deficit.During the early 2000s, the federal government’s budget is in deficit and the national debt is increasing.
38 State and Local Government Expenditures and Revenue 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSState and Local Government Expenditures and RevenueThe largest part of the state and local governments expenditures are on:EducationHighwaysPublic welfare benefits
39 State and Local Government Expenditures 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSState and Local Government ExpendituresFigure 2.12(a) showsstate and localgovernment expenditures.
40 State and Local Government Revenue 2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWSState and Local Government RevenueFigure 2.12(b)shows state andlocal governmentrevenue.