Presentation on theme: "The U.S. and Global Economies CHAPTER 2 EYE ONS CapitalFirmsLand Capital goodsHuman capitalMarket Circular flow modelGoods marketsNational debt EntrepreneurshipHouseholdsProfit."— Presentation transcript:
The U.S. and Global Economies CHAPTER 2 EYE ONS CapitalFirmsLand Capital goodsHuman capitalMarket Circular flow modelGoods marketsNational debt EntrepreneurshipHouseholdsProfit RentWagesInterest Factor marketsLabor Functional distribution of income Personal distribution of income Consumption goods & services Government goods & services Export goods & services
CHAPTER 2: What, How, and for Whom WHAT we produce Consumption goods and services Capital goods Government goods and services Export goods and services
What We Produce
CHAPTER 2: What, How, and for Whom HOW we produce Factors of Production: Land: Gifts of nature Labor:Time & effort devoted by humans to production of goods and services Capital:Tools, instruments, machines, buildings, & other items that themselves have been produced Entrepreneurship:Human resource that organizes labor, land, and capital
CHAPTER 2: What, How, and for Whom HOW we produce Factors of Production: Land: Minerals, water, air, plants, animals, birds, fish, farmland, and forests Labor: Depends on quality of human capital education, on-the-job training, work experience Capital: Includes semi-finished goods, office buildings, computers. Does not include money, stocks, or bonds. Entrepreneurs: New ideas on WHAT and HOW to produce, make business decisions, and bear the resulting risks.
Changes in How We Produce in the New Economy The new economy consists of the jobs and businesses that produce and use computers and equipment powered by computer chips. In each pair of photos, the new technology enables capital to replace labor.
Changes in How We Produce in the New Economy In the top pair of images, illustrates how the ATM (capital) is replacing many bank tellers (labor). In the bottom pair of images illustrates how a flight check-in machine (capital) is replacing many check- in clerks (labor).
Changes in How We Produce in the New Economy The number of bank teller and airline check-in clerk jobs is shrinking. But new technologies are creating a range of new jobs for people who make, program, install, and repair these new machines.
CHAPTER 2: What, How, and for Whom For WHOM we produce Paid Incomes: Rent: Income paid for the use of land. Wages: Income paid for the services of labor Interest: Income paid for the use of capital Profit/Loss:Income earned by an entrepreneur for running a business.
Over the past 65 years, the number of people who work on farms and who produce goods have decreased. Changes in What We Produce While the number of people who produce services has expanded.
Over the past 90 years, the amount of education people receive has increased. Changes in Human Captical The importance of education has become known and more people are making sacrifices to achieve educational goals
INCOME DISTRIBUTION rich become richer, the poor become …… FunctionalPersonal
CIRCULAR FLOWS of markets Households People living together making collective decisions Firms Institutions that produce goods & services MARKETS any arrangement that brings buyers and sellers together
MARKET any arrangement that brings buyers and sellers together Factor Market Buy and Sell Factors of production Households supply FOP Firms hire FOP Firms pay households income for services on FOP Goods Market Buy and Sell Goods and services Firms supply G&S Households buy G&S Households pay firms for goods and services they buy Real Flows Money Flows
Blue flows are incomes. Red flows are expenditures. Orange flows are Real flows
GOVERNMENT Expenditures and Incomes FEDERAL Goods and Services Social security and welfare Transfers to state and local government STATE and LOCAL Goods and services Welfare Education Personal Income taxes Corporate taxes Social security taxes Sales tax Property tax State income tax Expenditure Income
Households and firms pay taxes and receive transfers. Governments buy goods and services from firms.
Federal Government Revenue Expenditures
State and Local Government Revenue Expenditures
NATIONAL DEBT total amount borrowed (by govt.) in excess of tax revenues U.S. population: 302,313,818 (July 11, 2007) World population: 6,607,270,768 The U.S. clock ticks along showing a population increase of one person every 10 seconds. The world clock spins faster, adding 25 people in the same 10 seconds Advanced Emerging Developing Richest 29 countries 28 countries (Soviet) 118 countries THE PEOPLE THE COUNTRIES 1B people 1/2B people >5B people
A 100 years ago, the federal government spent 2 cents out of each dollar earned. Government grew during two world wars and in the 1960s and 1970s social programs expanded. After 9/11, government started to grow again. During the 1980s and 1990s, government shrunk. Growing Government
Value of Production
Coal Natural GasOIL Energy Sources WHY the United States takes a strong interest in the Middle East.
Income Per Day In 2007, U.S. average income was $124 a day. In advanced economies, it was about $90 a day. In Africa, it was only $8 a day.
GLOBAL ECONOMY Human Capital Differences Physical Capital Differences Food Other goods and services
How can you use the facts and trends about what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced in the U.S. and global economies? As you think about your future career, you know that a job in manufacturing is likely to be tough. A job in services is more likely to lead to success. What sort of job will you take? As you think about the stand you will take on the political question of protecting U.S. jobs, you are better informed. But how will you vote? The U.S. and Global Economies in Your Life
The U.S. and Global Economies CHAPTER 2 EYE ONS WHAT Consumption goods & services (60%) Capital goods Government goods & services Export goods & services HOWFOR WHO LandRent LaborWages (64%) CapitalInterest EntrepreneurshipProfit/Loss