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The U.S. and Global Economies CHAPTER 2 When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T Describe.

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Presentation on theme: "The U.S. and Global Economies CHAPTER 2 When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T Describe."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The U.S. and Global Economies CHAPTER 2

3 When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T Describe what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced in the United States. 1 Use the circular flow model to provide a picture of how households, firms, and governments interact. Describe what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced in the global economy. 2 3

4 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? What Do We Produce? We divide the vast array of goods and services produced into: Consumption goods and services Capital goods Government goods and services Export goods and services

5 Consumption goods and services Goods and services that are bought by individuals and used to provide personal enjoyment and contribute to a persons standard of living. For example, movies and Laundromat services. Capital goods Goods that are bought by businesses to increase their productive resources. For example, cranes and trucks. 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM?

6 Government goods and services Goods and services that are bought by governments. For example, missiles, bridges and police protection. Export goods and services Goods and services produced in one country and sold in other countries. For example, airplanes produced by Boeing and Citicorp banking services sold to China. 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM?

7 Figure 2.1(a) shows the relative magnitudes of the goods and services produced in 2005: 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Consumption 60% Capital goods 15% Government 16% Export goods 9%

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9 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Figure 2.1(b) shows the largest six types of services produced in And the largest four types of goods produced.

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11 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? How Do We Produce? Factors of production The productive resources used to produce goods and services. Factors of production are grouped into four categories: Land Labor Capital Entrepreneurship

12 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Land All the gifts of nature that we use to produce goods and services. All the things we call natural resources. Land includes minerals, water, air, wild plants, animals,birds, and fish as well as farmland and forests.

13 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Labor The work time and work effort that people devote to producing goods and services. The quality of labor depends on how skilled people arewhat economists call human capital. Human capital The knowledge and skill that people obtain from education, on-the-job training, and work experience.

14 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Figure 2.2 shows measures of human capital and how they have changed since 1910.

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16 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Capital Tools, instruments, machines, buildings, and other items that have been produced in the past and that businesses now use to produce goods and services. Capital includes semifinished goods, office buildings, and computers. Capital does not include money, stocks, and bonds. They are financial resources.

17 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Entrepreneurship The human resource that organizes labor, land, and capital. Entrepreneurs come up with new ideas about what and how to produce, make business decisions, and bear the risks that arise from these decisions.

18 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? For Whom Do We Produce? Factors of production are paid incomes: Rent Income paid for the use of land. Wages Income paid for the services of labor. Interest Income paid for the use of capital. Profit (or loss) Income earned by an entrepreneur for running a business.

19 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Functional distribution of income The percentage distribution of income among the factors of production. Personal distribution of income The percentage distribution of income among individual persons.

20 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Figure 2.3(a) shows the functional distribution of income: Wages 64% Rent, interest, and profit 36%

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22 2.1 WHAT, HOW, AND FOR WHOM? Figure 2.2(b) shows the personal distribution of income: The poorest 20% earned only 3.4% of total income. The richest 20% earned 50% of total income.

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24 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS Circular flow model A model of the economy that shows: the circular flow of expenditures and incomes that result from decision makers choices and the way those choices interact in markets to determine what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced.

25 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS Households and Firms Households Individuals or people living together as decision-making units. Firms Institutions that organize production of goods and services.

26 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS Markets A market is any arrangement that brings buyers and sellers together and enables them to get information and do business with each other. Factor markets are markets in which factors of production are bought and sold. Goods markets are markets in which goods and services are bought and sold.

27 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS In factor markets: Households supply factors of production Firms hire factors of production. Firms supply goods and services produced. Households buy goods and services. In goods markets: Real Flows and Money Flows

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29 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS These are the real flows in the economy. Real Flows and Money Flows Money flows run in the opposite direction to the real flows.

30 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS Firms pay households incomes for the services of factors of production. Real Flows and Money Flows Households pay firms for the goods and services they buy. These are the money flows. The blue flows are incomes. The red flows are expenditures.

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32 Governments We divide governments into two broad levels: Federal government State and local government Federal Government The federal governments major expenditures are to provide: 1.Goods and services 2.Social security and welfare benefits 3.Transfers to state and local governments 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

33 The federal government finances its expenditures by collecting taxes. The main taxes are: 1.Personal income taxes 2.Corporate (business) taxes 3.Social security taxes During the 2005, the federal government spent $2.5 trillionabout 20 cents in every dollar earned in the year. The federal government collected less than $2.5 trillion in taxes and so it had a deficit. 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

34 State and Local Governments State and local governments expenditures provide: 1.Goods and services 2.Welfare benefits State and local governments finance these expenditures by collecting taxes. The main taxes levied are: 1.Sales taxes 2.Property taxes 3.State income taxes 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

35 Households and firms pay taxes and receive transfers. Governments buy goods and services from firms. Government in the Circular Flow 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

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37 Federal Government Expenditures Figure 2.6(a) shows federal government expenditures. 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

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39 Federal Government Revenue Figure 2.6(b) shows federal government revenue. 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

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41 Federal Government Expenditures and Revenue National debt The total amount that the government has borrowed to make expenditures that exceed tax revenueto run a government budget deficit. During the early 2000s, the federal governments budget is in deficit and the national debt is increasing. 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

42 State and Local Government Expenditures and Revenue The largest part of the state and local governments expenditures are on: Education Highways Public welfare benefits 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

43 State and Local Government Expenditures Figure 2.7(a) shows state and local government expenditures. 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

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45 State and Local Government Revenue Figure 2.7(b) shows state and local government revenue. 2.2 THE CIRCULAR FLOWS

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47 The People U.S. population: 295,649,027 (March 13, 2005) World population: 6,424,033, THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

48 Countries Advanced Economies The richest 29 countries (or areas). Almost 1 billion people (15 percent of the worlds population) live in advanced economies. 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

49 Emerging Market and Developing Economies Emerging market economies are the 28 countries of Central and Eastern European and Asia that were until the 1990s part of the Soviet Union. Almost 500 million people live in these countries. Developing economies are the 118 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Central and South America that have not yet achieved high average incomes for their people. More than 5 billion people live in these countries. 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

50 What in the Global Economy In 2005, global economy produced $60 trillion of goods and services. Figure 2.8 shows the shares of global production.

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52 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY Energy The location of oil, natural gas, and coal determines the sources of the worlds energy. Figure 2.9(a) shows the distribution of oil.

53 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY Energy The location of oil, natural gas, and coal determines the sources of the worlds energy. Figure 2.9(b) shows the distribution of natural gas.

54 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY Energy The location of oil, natural gas, and coal determines the sources of the worlds energy. Figure 2.9(c) shows the distribution of coal.

55 You can now see why the United States takes a strong interest in the Middle East. It has 65 percent of the worlds oil and 41 percent of the worlds natural gas. 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

56 You can now see why the United States takes a strong interest in the Middle East. It has 65 percent of the worlds oil and 41 percent of the worlds natural gas. 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

57 Food Agriculture in the United States is about 1.4 percent of total U.S. production. Agriculture in developing countries averages 14 percent of their total production. Advanced economies accounts for 2/3 of world agricultural production. Why? Farms are large and highly productive and U.S. and E.U. farmers receives subsidies, which encourages more production. 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

58 Other Goods and Services The advanced economies produce similar goods and services: agriculture is small; manufacturing is small; and services are the major and fast growing. In the developing countries, agriculture is big but shrinking; manufacture is large and growing; services are important but remain small. Emerging economies stand between the developing economies and the advanced economies. 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

59 How in the Global Economy? Human Capital Differences The quality of labor depends on human capital. The differences in human capital between the advanced economies and the developing economies is enormous and it arises from: Education, on-the-job training, and experience Physical ability and state of health. 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

60 Physical Capital Differences The physical capital available for producing goods and services differentiates an advanced economy from a developing economy: Transportation systemadvanced economies more developed Technologies used on farms and in factories advanced economies use more capital-intensive technologies. 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

61 2.3 MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY For Whom in the Global Economy Who gets the worlds goods and services depends on the incomes that people earn. Figure 2.10 (on the next slide) shows the distribution of incomes around the world.

62 In 2005, U.S. average income was $108 per day. In advanced economies, it was about $75 a day 2.3 THE GLOBAL ECONOMY In Africa, it was only $6 a day.

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64 The U.S. and Global Economies in YOUR Life How can you use the facts and trends about what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced in the U.S. and global economies? As you think about your future career, you know that a job in manufacturing is likely to be tough. A job in services is more likely to lead to success. What sort of job will you take? As you think about the stand you will take on the political question of protecting U.S. jobs, you are better informed. But how will you vote? Chapter 3 will help you decide.


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