Presentation on theme: "Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 1 John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA TecEco Managing Director The Solution to Global Warming is to Change the."— Presentation transcript:
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 1 John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA TecEco Managing Director The Solution to Global Warming is to Change the Way we do Things. Why?
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 2 The Atmosphere Source: Sam Nelson Greenbase Source: IPCC Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Earth's_atmosphere 17 Feb 08 Even if the annual flow of emissions was frozen today, the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would still reach double its pre-industrial levels by 2050. In fact, emissions are increasing rapidly and the level of 550 ppm could be reached as early as 2035. Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6 The Challenge is to Keep the Atmosphere Stable. To do this we must take a long term view and engineer a new way for us to live.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com The Population Paradox 3 Developed Countries Undeveloped Countries Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet are continuing to rise strongly. ? ? A Planet in Crisis Demographic Explosion => The paradox: Affluence = Population Control
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 4 CO 2 in the Atmosphere Gigaton CO 2 Year BAU Emissions ? ? 450 ppm
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Correlation CO 2 and Temperature 5 Reducing emissions will be difficult because of the correlation between energy and fossil fuels. Even if emissions reductions were to succeed we must still get the CO 2 out of the air. Source of graphic: Hansen, J et. al. Climate Change and Trace Gases The correlation between temperature and CO 2 in the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is very good. All things being equal the simple answer is usually the right answer (Occams razor) The best plan is a holistic one that reduces emissions and profitably balances the inevitable releases from our activities with massive sequestration.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 6 Balancing CO2 in the Atmosphere The problem is fundamentally one of CO 2 balance, not emissions There are two ways the CO 2 in the atmosphere can be balanced By reducing emissions. By using (sequestering) at least as much carbon as we produce. Both strategies require technological change on a scale never before imagined. A high long term high price for carbon to drive investment that will result in this change.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 7 Where are We? The Kyoto Protocol A treaty intended to implement the objectives and principles agreed in the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Requires governments to agree to quantified limits on their greenhouse gas emissions, through sequential rounds of negotiations for successive commitment periods. The Kyoto treaty is the result of political negotiation and diplomatic compromise and on the surface not a lot more than short term promises to reduce emissions that make politicians look good, but that their successors cannot possibly keep. The Kyoto treaty is not a viable strategy for survival in the future - A treaty agreeing to a long term plan is required. Constraint With lots of silly targets with no strategy for their achievement Talk about Carbon Capture and Storage Not a lot else
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 8 We are Hooked On Fossil Fuel Energy Emissions targets are unlikely to be met whilst fossil fuels remain Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions will be 41% higher in 2010 than in 1990 ( Ford, M., Matysek, A, Jakeman, G., Gurney, A & Fisher B. S. 2006, Perspectives on International Climate Change, paper presented at the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics society 50th Annual Conference). www.aares.info/files/2006_matysek.p df. A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to preserve history for many, many generations to come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the Virgin Earth Prize Gaia Engineering is the way to do so – John Harrison
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 9 Fossil Fuels Renewable energy growth is unlikely to even match the forecast growth for the overall electricity market "History shows that transforming the primary sources of energy require enormous investments in infrastructure and is likely to be a 100-year challenge ExxonMobil's own research had shown that by 2030 fossil fuels would still supply about three- quarters of the world's total energy demand Exxon Mobil Australia chairman John Dashwood American Chamber of Commerce in Australia Business Luncheon 28 August, 2009
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 10 Global Primary Energy Consumption Fuel Mix Source: Abare
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Oil will Decline 11 1111 Oil prices will naturally rise as demand outstrips supply. Where is the R & D for oil replacement?
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Research and Development into Alternatives 12 Composition of Australian Government energy research and development in 2002 There is not enough research into alternatives
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 13 The Correlation Between WIP and Emissions World Industrial Product (deflated world `GDP' in real value - i.e. World physical production). CO2 emissions (in CO2 mass units: Doubling time = 29 years. Data: CDIAC; statistics: GDI. The correlation between the WIP and the CO2 emissions is very high. Source: Di Fazio, Alberto, The fallacy of pure efficiency gain measures to control future climate change, Astronomical Observatory of Rome and the Global Dynamics Institute
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com The Correlation Between WIP and Emissions 14 The correlation between emissions and GDP is high because: Fossil fuels supply >> 90% of the world's energy. There is still a lot of coal left. Energy is used to produce goods (WIP). Only in recent years have we been seriously trying to improve efficiency (most of the Kyoto effort) there has been a shift to services with lower CO 2 intensity Energy ~ Money ?
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 15 The Limits to Efficiency Improvements There are may ways the second law of thermodynamics can be enunciated but relevant to us is Lord Kelvins version. It is impossible to convert heat completely into work Using Carnots law it is possible to calculate the theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine such as a power station turbine or engine of a car, bus or train. (Try the calculator at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/carnot.html) http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/carnot.html Most heat engines run at much lower efficiencies than the theoretical limit so there is still scope for improvements however the law of diminishing returns applies in terms of cost.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 16 Efficiency Limitations to Emissions Reduction Per capita emissions reduction through Pilzer 1 st law substitution (Technology change = resource use change) Rate of Per Capita Emissions Reduction The Future 2008 Per capita emissions reduction through thermodynamic efficiency Total per capita emissions reduction Conclusion: It is essential that R& D into substitution technologies occurs now in order to ramp up Pilzer first law substitution later and avoid thermodynamic constraints. This is not happening in Australia
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 17 Kyoto Strategies are Not Working Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions will be 41% higher in 2010 than in 1990, 1% less than without Kyoto. A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to preserve history for many, many generations to come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the Virgin Earth Prize Ford M, Matyseka M, et al. (2006). Perspectives on international climate policy. Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society 50th Annual Conference, Sydney, ABARE. www.aares.info/files/2006_matysek.pdf. We are tracking on worst case scenarios. Whetton, P, Leader, Climate Impacts & Risk Group, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic, Australia in presentation Climate Change: What is the science telling us?
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com The Techno - Process 18 Underlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with earth systems these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects. To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems. Detrimental affects on earth systems Move 500-600 billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnes Take Waste Materials I am contemplating profitable bottom up change of immense proportion and importance. John Harrison, TecEco
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Detrimental Linkages of the Techno - Process 19 Takemanipulateand makeimpacts End of lifecycle impacts Greater Utility Less Utility Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows. There is no such place as away Use impacts. Materials are in the Techno- Sphere Utility zone Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flows
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Moleconomic Flows 20 Take Manipulate Make Use Waste [ Materials flow ] [ Underlying molecular flow ] If the underlying molecular flows are out of tune with nature there is damage to the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfcs, c=halogen compounds and CO 2 Moleconomics is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic, balance or minimally interfere with natural flows. To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our planet we must first fix the materials flows in a bottom up approach
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 21 The Earth System Anthropo- sphere The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by man such as CO 2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commons.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 22 Earth Systems Science Source graphic: NASA Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are ideally homeostatic. Earth Systems Atmospheric composition, climate, land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal zones, freshwater salinity etc.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 23 The Carbon Cycle and Emissions After: David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003 Emissions from fossil fuels and cement production are a significant cause of global warming. We need to increase the sedimentary carbon sink
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Darwin - Evolution 24 As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Conclusions Natural selection applies to us. Charles Darwin Natural selection is a too way street. We influence our environment William E Rudderman Jarrod Dimond and others There is a global homeostasis and our environment may influence us by naturally rejection if it changes too much under our influence. John Harrison, James Lovelock 25
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 26 A Future with Choices? To avoid future disaster three choices: Restraint, change the way we do things or both. Can we have our cake and eat it?. Only if we change the way we do things.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 27 Changing the Way we do Things Without Economic Downsides The challenge is to find ways of reducing CO2 in the air without negatively impacting the economy. Substitution to Non Fossil Fuel Sources of Energy Geothermal, Wind, Solar etc. Nuclear Sequestration on a Massive Scale Geo-sequestration (clean coal, hydrogen fuel etc.) - limited Anthropogenic sequestration in the built environment - our preferred option I am not going to talk so much about Energy Substitution in this presentation
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 2828 Changing the Techno-Process Reduce Re-use Recycle => Materials => Take => manipulate => make => use => waste The Flow of Atoms and Molecules in the global commons Driven by fossil fuel energy with take and waste impacts. This is biomimicry! By changing the technology paradigms we can change the materials flows and thus the underlying molecular flows. Moleconomics
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 29 Geosequestration Is not safe due to leakage (China recently?) Is not likely to be ready before 2015 for coal fired power stations in Australia Authoritative published studies estimate the cost of geosequestration at between $30- $140/tCO 2. (a wide range due to so many uncertainties) Added to the cost of coal or hydrogen, these sources of energy with geosequestration may be more expensive that alternatives. A long term plan would included the required R & D now
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 30 Affect of Leakage on Geosequestration Source: CANA (2004). Carbon Leakage and Geosequestration, Climate Action Network Australia. "The assumption of exclusive reliance on storage may be an extreme one, however the example illustrates that emphasis on energy efficiency and increased reliance on renewable energy must be priority areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. The higher the expected leakage rate and the larger the uncertainty, the less attractive geosequestration is compared to other mitigation alternatives such as shifting to renewable energy sources, and improved efficiency in production and consumption of energy." Downloadable Model at http://www.tececo.com/files/spreadsheets/Gaia EngineeringVGeoSequestrationV1_26Apr08.xls
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 31 Size of Natural Carbon Sinks Modified from Figure 2 Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison. "Zero Emission Coal Power, a New Concept." from http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/01/carbon_seq/2b2.pdf by the inclusion of a bar to represent sedimentary sinks
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Carbon Sink Permanence 32 Carbonate sediment 40,000,000 Gt Plants 600 Gt Sequestration Permanence and time
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 33 Synopsis We must accept our long term role of maintaining spaceship earth as planetary engineers and find ways of maintaining the level of carbon dioxide, oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere at desirable levels. We cannot possibly arrest the alarming increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring through efficiency, emissions reduction (constraint) or substitution alone Geo-sequestration is at best short term and at worst highly risky. We have a good chance of preserving the future if we mimic nature and find profitable uses for carbon and other wastes.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 34 Synopsis (2) Uses for carbon and other wastes must be economically driven and result in a real value that puts profit in the pocket of a large number who will as a consequence wish to engage otherwise they cannot be implemented on the massive scale required. Anthropogenic sequestration as man made carbonate in the built environment is a new technology platform that has the promise of profitably sequestering massive amounts of carbon profitably. The markets created for man made carbonate in buildings are insatiable, large enough and indefinitely continuing. Anthropogenic sequestration by building with man made carbonate is doable and most likely presents the only option we have for saving the planet from runaway climate change until such time as safe and reliable forms of energy alternative to fossil fuels can be developed Anthropogenic sequestration by building with man made carbonate must be part of any long term planetary maintenance strategy.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Biomimicry - Geomimicry 35 All natural processes are very economical. We must also be MUCH more economical The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes. The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Geomimicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processes
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 36 Learning to Use Carbon - Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Large tonnages of carbon (7% of the crust) were put away during earths geological history as limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the activity of plants and animals. Orders of magnitude more than as coal or petroleum! Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn it into wood. These same plants and animals wasted nothing The waste from one is the food or home for another. Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in an insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing market. Such a market exists for building and construction materials.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 37 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? The required paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. It can only happen economically. To put an economic value on carbon and wastes We have no choice but to: invent new technical paradigms such as offered by TecEco. Evolve culturally to effectively use new these technical paradigms By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as building materials we can economically reduce their concentration in the global commons.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 38 Sequestration of Carbon and Wastes as Building Materials During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and wastes. This is geomimicry CO 2 C Waste CO 2 Pervious pavement
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 39 Geomimicry There are 1.2-3 grams of magnesium and about.4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater. There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration. To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO 2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicry Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% - 8% of the crust.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 40 Anthropogenic Sequestration Using Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis by plants and algae Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) Organic compounds made by autotrophs Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco- Cements) Decay by fungi and bacteria CO 2 in the air and water More about Gaia Engineering at http://www.tececo.com.au/simple.gaiaengineering_summary.php
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 41 Building and Construction Represents an Insatiable, Large and Indefinitely Continuing Market for Man Made Carbonate Sequestration The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. It comprises buildings and infrastructure. Construction materials comprise 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Around 50 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis. The single biggest materials flow (after water) is concrete at around 18 billion tonnes or > 2 tonnes per man, woman and child on the planet. 40% of total energy in the industrialised world (researchandmarkets) Why not use magnesium carbonate aggregates and building components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco to bind them together?
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 42 Only the Built Environment is Big Enough Source of graphics: Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007 The built environment is our footprint, the major proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and infrastructure
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 43 Economically Driven Technological Change New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse damaging flows from the Techno Process. $ - ECONOMICS - $ Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 44 Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change. # $ Demand Supply Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. Equilibrium Shift ECONOMICS Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth A measure of the degree of sustainability is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply. We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 45 Changing the Technology Paradigm By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource 1 1.Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990 It is not so much a matter of dematerialisation or constraint as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO 2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms Or more simply – the technical paradigm determines what is or is not a resource!
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 46 Cultural Change is Happening! Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports STERN Report Lots of Talkfest IPCC Report Political change Branson Prize Live Earth (07/07/07) The media have an important growing role
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Gaia Engineering Flowchart 47 Built Environment MgCO 3 and CaCO 3 Stone Extraction Industrial CO 2 MgO TecEco Tec-Kiln Eco- Cements Building components & aggregates TecEco Cement Manufacture CaO Clays Portland Cement Manufacture Brine or Sea water Tec- Cements Building waste Other waste Fresh Water Extraction inputs and outputs depending on method chosen
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 48 Gaia Engineering Process Diagram Extraction Process Fossil fuels Solar or solar derived energy Oil MgO CO 2 Coal CO 2 Inputs: Atmospheric or industrial CO 2, brines, waste acid or bitterns, other wastes Outputs: Carbonate building materials, potable water, valuable commodity salts. Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds 1.29 gm/l Mg.412 gm/l Ca Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno-processes outside the tececology. TecEco MgCO 2 Cycle Carbonate building components Eco-Cement TecEco Kiln MgCO 3
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 49 The Technical Case Atmospheric increase =Emissions from fossil fuels +Net emissions from changes in land use -Oceanic uptake -Missing carbon sink 11.72 (±0.2)=23.08 (±0.4)+8.016 (±0.8)-8.79 (±0.7) -10.62 (±1.1) Source: The Woods Hole Institute converted to billion metric tonnes or petograms CO 2 TecEcoTecEco plan through Gaia Engineering to modify the carbon cycle by creating a new man made carbon sink in the built environment. The need for a new and very large sink can be appreciated by considering the balance sheet of global carbon in the crust after Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison depicted in another slide.Gaia Engineering The Carbon Cycle
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 50 Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem Our new technologies will enable easy low cost production of carbonate building materials. Our source of calcium or magnesium is from seawater, brines or bitterns and our source of CO 2 can be from the air. If carbonates such as magnesite were our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with our Gaia Engineering, we have the problem of too much in the atmosphere as good as solved! Anthropogenic sequestration - building with carbonate and waste is the answer
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 51 Why Magnesium Carbonates? Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO 2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment: Due to the lighter molar mass of magnesium more CO 2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show. At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element Sea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium at.412 g/l Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for the utilisation of other wastes. Seawater Reference Data g/l H 2 0 Cati on radiu s (pm) Chloride (Cl -- )19167 Sodium (Na + )10.5116 Sulfate (S04 -- )2.7? Magnesium (Mg ++ )1.2986 Calcium (Ca ++ ) 0.41 2114 Potassium (K + ) 0.39 9152
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 52 How much Carbonate to Balance Emissions? MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => MgCO3.3H2O 40.31 + 18(l) => 58.31 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 138.368 molar masses. 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 138.368 parts by mass MgCO3.3H2O 1 ~= 138.368/44.01= 3.144 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 37.728 billion tonnes of nesquehonite MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => MgCO3 40.31 + 18(l) => 58.31 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 84.32 molar masses. CO2 ~= MgCO3 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 84.32 parts by mass MgCO3 1 ~= 84.32/44.01= 1.9159 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 22.99 billion tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 Thus 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite CaO + H2O => Ca(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => CaCO3 56.08 + 18(l) => 74.08 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 100.09 molar masses. CO2 ~= CaCO3 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 100.09 parts by mass MgCO3 1 ~= 100.09/44.01= 2.274 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 27.29 billion tonnes calcite (limestone) The density of calcite is 2.71 gm/cm3 or 2.71 tonne/metre3 Thus 27.29/2.71 billion cubic metres ~= 10.07 cubic kilometres of limestone Full calculation: http://www.tececo.com/sustainability.carbon_cycles_sinks.phphttp://www.tececo.com/sustainability.carbon_cycles_sinks.php
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 53 Technical implications A range of hydraulic concretes can be specified in which a variable hydroxide component is more or less carbonated and in which the silicate components (e.g. CSH) play an important catalytic role. Coarse and fine aggregate can be made in the same way. The kinetics are just as important as the thermodynamics of the chemistry. The pH Eh stability fields of concrete can be maintained so steel reinforcing can continue to be used (subject matter of a new patent). Mixed calcium-magnesium carbonation does not result in shrinkage problems. Such concretes are suitable for at least the Pareto proportion of uses.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com How Do we Make Carbonate? The key is to understand the nature of polar or hydrogen bonding in water as it is this bonding that keeps ions such as calcium and magnesium as dissolved species. We have our own highly secret ideas about how to sufficiently weaken hydrogen bonding to cause massive precipitation of carbonates and there are other contenders such as the Calera and Greensols process. 54
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 55 Global Producion of Cement and Concrete
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 56 The Economic Case The profit margin for the production of cement and concrete is low. Generally less than 5% more often less than 3%. It follows that: A carbon cost if fully implemented (i.e. a zero tax or cap) is likely to be much more than the current profit margin. A carbon credit (offset) of the same amount or more (as in the case of Gaia Engineering) would result in considerably more profit than is currently being made.Gaia Engineering If fully implemented with both binder and aggregates made of man made carbonate the potential trade in credits or offsets is enormous. There is likely to be a high level of government support if the technology is promoted by the industry.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 57 Gaia Engineering Flow chart Built Environment MgCO 3 and CaCO 3 Stone Extraction Industrial CO 2 MgO TecEco Tec-Kiln Eco- Cements Building components & aggregates TecEco Cement Manufacture CaO Clays Portland Cement Manufacture Brine or Sea water Tec- Cements Building waste Other waste Fresh Water Extraction inputs and outputs depending on method chosen
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 58 Gaia Engineering Process Diagram Extraction Process Fossil fuels Solar or solar derived energy Oil MgO CO 2 Coal CO 2 Inputs: Atmospheric or industrial CO 2, brines, waste acid or bitterns, other wastes Outputs: Carbonate building materials, potable water, valuable commodity salts. Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds 1.29 gm/l Mg.412 gm/l Ca Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno-processes outside the tececology. TecEco MgCO 2 Cycle Carbonate building components Eco-Cement TecEco Kiln MgCO 3
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 59 Anthropogenic Sequestration Using Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis by plants and algae Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) Organic compounds made by autotrophs Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco- Cements) Decay by fungi and bacteria CO 2 in the air and water More about Gaia Engineering at http://www.tececo.com.au/simple.gaiaengineering_summary.php
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Implementation Difficulties Long supply chain. Too big for TecEco to change? No long term secure price for carbon to drive investment. Building and construction has huge potential for emissions reduction yet is in the too hard basket for most governments because of perceived difficulties in implementation. 60
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com Driving the Change to Green Change Standards Performance based Introduce peer review for liability protection Production of numbers as a result of which improvements in sustainability can be measured Change Rewards Performance based Rewards for numbers as a result of which improvements in sustainability can be measured. E.g. Reduction in process emissions compared to BAU Develop LCA Tools for measuring improvements. Difficult to measure affect and relevant contribution of materials and design to lifetime energies Lifetime energies most important Introduce Carbon Trading Broad based and similar to GST system
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 62 Gaia Engineering Summary Gaia Engineering is: Potentially profitable Technically feasible Would put the concrete industry back in control of the carbon agenda Solve the industries profitability problems Solve the global warming problem