Presentation on theme: "Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 1 John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA. TecEco Managing Director Gaia Engineering – An Economic Approach to Solving."— Presentation transcript:
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 1 John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA. TecEco Managing Director Gaia Engineering – An Economic Approach to Solving Climate Change, Water and Waste Problems
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 2 Living to Our Full Potential? Every part of creation has a right to live to its full potential – The Upanishads. A common enough theme with humanity. A theme on a collision course with sustainability. To avoid future disaster three choices: Restraint, change the way we do things or both. Can we have our cake and eat it?. Only if we reinvent the way we do things.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 3 The Techno - Process Detrimental affects on earth systems Move 500-600 billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnes Take Waste Materials 10,000 years ago we lived in homeostatic balance with the planet. Our unique intelligence has allowed us to learn how to extract energy, food and materials from our environment to economically improve our well being. I call this physical interface of our economy the techno - process.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 4 The Correlation Between WIP and Emissions World Industrial Product (deflated world `GDP' in real value - i.e. World physical production). CO2 emissions (in CO2 mass units: Doubling time = 29 years. Data: CDIAC; statistics: GDI. The correlation between the WIP and the CO2 emissions is very high. Source: Di Fazio, Alberto, The fallacy of pure efficiency gain measures to control future climate change, Astronomical Observatory of Rome and the Global Dynamics Institute
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 55 Sequestration of Carbon and Wastes in the built environment During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment as in Gaia Engineering mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. Gaia Engineering In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and wastes. This is geomimicry CO 2 C Waste CO 2 Pervious pavement
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 6 The technical case Atmospheric increase =Emissions from fossil fuels +Net emissions from changes in land use -Oceanic uptake -Missing carbon sink 11.72 (±0.2)=23.08 (±0.4)+8.016 (±0.8)-8.79 (±0.7) -10.62 (±1.1) Source: The Woods Hole Institute converted to billion metric tonnes or petograms CO 2 TecEcoTecEco plan through Gaia Engineering to modify the carbon cycle by creating a new man made carbon sink in the built environment. The need for a new and very large sink can be appreciated by considering the balance sheet of global carbon in the crust after Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison depicted in the next slide.Gaia Engineering The Carbon Cycle
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 7 Technical implications A range of hydraulic concretes can be specified in which a variable hydroxide component is more or less carbonated and in which the silicate components (e.g. CSH) play an important catalytic role. Coarse and fine aggregate can be made in the same way. The kinetics are just as important as the thermodynamics of the chemistry. The pH Eh stability fields of concrete can be maintained so steel reinforcing can continue to be used (subject matter of a new patent). Mixed calcium-magnesium carbonation does not result in shrinkage problems. Such concretes are suitable for at least the Pareto proportion of uses.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 8 Size of Carbon Sinks Modified from Figure 2 Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison. "Zero Emission Coal Power, a New Concept." from http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/01/carbon_seq/2b2.pdf by the inclusion of a bar to represent sedimentary sinks
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 9 How much CARBONATE TO BALANCE EMISSIONS? MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => MgCO3.3H2O 40.31 + 18(l) => 58.31 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 138.368 molar masses. 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 138.368 parts by mass MgCO3.3H2O 1 ~= 138.368/44.01= 3.144 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 37.728 billion tonnes of nesquehonite MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => MgCO3 40.31 + 18(l) => 58.31 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 84.32 molar masses. CO2 ~= MgCO3 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 84.32 parts by mass MgCO3 1 ~= 84.32/44.01= 1.9159 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 22.99 billion tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 Thus 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite CaO + H2O => Ca(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => CaCO3 56.08 + 18(l) => 74.08 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 100.09 molar masses. CO2 ~= CaCO3 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 100.09 parts by mass MgCO3 1 ~= 100.09/44.01= 2.274 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 27.29 billion tonnes calcite (limestone) The density of calcite is 2.71 gm/cm3 or 2.71 tonne/metre3 Thus 27.29/2.71 billion cubic metres ~= 10.07 cubic kilometres of limestone Full calculation: http://www.tececo.com/sustainability.carbon_cycles_sinks.phphttp://www.tececo.com/sustainability.carbon_cycles_sinks.php
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 10 Global Producion of cement and concrete
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 11 The economic case The profit margin for the production of cement and concrete is low. Generally less than 5% more often less than 3%. It follows that: A carbon cost if fully implemented (i.e. a zero tax or cap) is likely to be much more than the current profit margin. A carbon credit (offset) of the same amount or more (as in the case of Gaia Engineering) would result in considerably more profit than is currently being made.Gaia Engineering If fully implemented with both binder and aggregates made of man made carbonate the potential trade in credits or offsets is enormous. There is likely to be a high level of government support if the technology is promoted by the industry.
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 12 Gaia Engineering Flow chart Built Environment MgCO 3 and CaCO 3 Stone Extraction Industrial CO 2 MgO TecEco Tec-Kiln Eco- Cements Building components & aggregates TecEco Cement Manufacture CaO Clays Portland Cement Manufacture Brine or Sea water Tec- Cements Building waste Other waste Fresh Water Extraction inputs and outputs depending on method chosen
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 13 Gaia Engineering Process Diagram Extraction Process Fossil fuels Solar or solar derived energy Oil MgO CO 2 Coal CO 2 Inputs: Atmospheric or industrial CO 2, brines, waste acid or bitterns, other wastes Outputs: Carbonate building materials, potable water, valuable commodity salts. Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds 1.29 gm/l Mg.412 gm/l Ca Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno-processes outside the tececology. TecEco MgCO 2 Cycle Carbonate building components Eco-Cement TecEco Kiln MgCO 3
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 14 Anthropogenic Sequestration Using Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis by plants and algae Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) Organic compounds made by autotrophs Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco- Cements) Decay by fungi and bacteria CO 2 in the air and water More about Gaia Engineering at http://www.tececo.com.au/simple.gaiaengineering_summary.php
Presentation downloadable from www.tececo.com 15 Gaia Engineering summary Gaia Engineering is: Potentially profitable Technically feasible Would put the industry back in control of the carbon agenda Solve the industries profitability problems Solve the global warming problem