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Presentation downloadable from 1 Sustainability Workshop – Hobart 1 st May, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation downloadable from 1 Sustainability Workshop – Hobart 1 st May, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation downloadable from 1 Sustainability Workshop – Hobart 1 st May, 2008

2 Presentation downloadable from 2 Urgent Fixes are Needed Water 1/3 of world population stressed for water By 2050 2/3 due to global warming Waste Around 600 million tonnes. The underlying moleconomic flow is poisoning our world CO 2 Causing global temperature rises Energy Peak oil has passed and fossil fuel energy costs set to rise. Food Growing food shortages due to climate change and production of bio fuels To solve these problems we need to change the way we do things and what we do them with! All these problems are interconnected

3 Presentation downloadable from 3 The Atmosphere Source: Sam Nelson Greenbase Source: IPCC Source: http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Earth's_atmo sphere 17 Feb 08 Even if the annual flow of emissions was frozen today, the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would still reach double its pre-industrial levels by 2050. In fact, emissions are increasing rapidly and the level of 550 ppm could be reached as early as 2035. Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6 The Challenge is to Keep the Atmosphere Stable. To do this we must take a long term view and engineer a new way for us to live.

4 Presentation downloadable from 4 CO 2 in the Atmosphere Gigaton CO 2 Year BAU Emissions 450 ppm ? ? CO2 in the Atmosphere

5 Presentation downloadable from 5 The Kyoto Protocol A treaty intended to implement the objectives and principles agreed in the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Requires governments to agree to quantified limits on their greenhouse gas emissions, through sequential rounds of negotiations for successive commitment periods. The Kyoto treaty is the result of political negotiation and diplomatic compromise and on the surface not a lot more than short term promises to reduce emissions that make politicians look good that their successors cannot possibly keep. It is not a strategy for survival in the future. A long term view is required. Constraint alone is not going to work

6 Presentation downloadable from 6 We are Hooked On Fossil Fuel Energy Emissions targets are unlikely to be met whilst fossil fuels remain Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions will be 41% higher in 2010 than in 1990 ( Ford, M., Matysek, A, Jakeman, G., Gurney, A & Fisher B. S. 2006, Perspectives on International Climate Change, paper presented at the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics society 50th Annual Conference). df. A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to preserve history for many, many generations to come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the Virgin Earth Prize Gaia Engineering is the way to do so – John Harrison

7 Presentation downloadable from 7 Correlation Between WIP and Emissions World Industrial Product (deflated world `GDP' in real value - i.e. World physical production). CO2 emissions (in CO2 mass units: Doubling time = 29 years. Data: CDIAC; statistics: GDI. The correlation between the WIP and the CO2 emissions is very high. The correlation coefficient r= 0.995, i.e. practically 1 (total correlation). Di Fazios work demonstrates that we cannot achieve sustainability through efficiency alone. Di Fazio, Alberto, The fallacy of pure efficiency gain measures to control future climate change, Astronomical Observatory of Rome and the Global Dynamics Institute

8 Presentation downloadable from 8 Synopsis We are too many and our influence too great. We must therefore accept our role of maintaining spaceship earth as planetary engineers and find ways of maintaining the level of carbon dioxide, oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere at desirable levels. We are too hooked on fossil fuels and cannot possibly arrest the alarming increases in carbon dioxide currently occurring through efficiency, emissions reduction or substitution by renewables. Constraint will not lift the third world to our level of affluence. We must find new technology platforms that will otherwise we have no hope of controlling population

9 Presentation downloadable from 9 Synopsis We have a good chance of preserving the future if we mimic nature by finding uses for carbon and other wastes. Uses for carbon and other wastes must result in a real value that puts profit in the pocket of a large number who will as a consequence wish to engage otherwise they cannot be implemented on the massive scale required. The markets created must be insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing. Building with man made carbonate is doable and most likely presents the only option we have for saving the planet from runaway global warming until such time as safe and reliable forms of energy alternative to fossil fuels can be developed, we more seriously take our relationship with the planet and our role as planetary engineers and custodians.

10 Presentation downloadable from 10 Affect of Leakage on Geosequestration Source: CANA (2004). Carbon Leakage and Geosequestration, Climate Action Network Australia. "The assumption of exclusive reliance on storage may be an extreme one, however the example illustrates that emphasis on energy efficiency and increased reliance on renewable energy must be priority areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. The higher the expected leakage rate and the larger the uncertainty, the less attractive geosequestration is compared to other mitigation alternatives such as shifting to renewable energy sources, and improved efficiency in production and consumption of energy." Downloadable Model at EngineeringVGeoSequestrationV1_26Apr08.xls

11 Presentation downloadable from 11 Size of Carbon Sinks Modified from Figure 2 Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison. "Zero Emission Coal Power, a New Concept." from by the inclusion of a bar to represent sedimentary sinks

12 Presentation downloadable from 12 Carbonate sediment 40,000,000 Gt Fossil Fuels 8,000 Gt Soils and Detritus 1600 Gt Plants 600 Gt Methane Clathrates 100,000 Gt Sequestration Permanence and time Carbon Sink Permanence

13 Presentation downloadable from 13 Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis by plants and algae Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) Organic compounds made by autotrophs Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco- Cements) Decay by fungi and bacteria CO 2 in the air and water More about Gaia Engineering at

14 Presentation downloadable from 14 Can Building and Construction Represents an Insatiable, Large and Indefinitely Continuing Market for Carbonate? The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. It comprises buildings and infrastructure. Construction materials comprise 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Around 25 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis. The single biggest materials flow (after water) is concrete at around 17 billion tonnes or > 2 tonnes per man, woman and child on the planet. 40% of total energy in the industrialised world (researchandmarkets) Why not use magnesium carbonate aggregates and building components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco to bind them together?

15 Presentation downloadable from 15 The Earth System Anthropo- sphere The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by man such as CO 2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commons.

16 Presentation downloadable from 16 Earth Systems Science Source graphic: NASA Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are ideally homeostatic. Earth Systems Atmospheric composition, climate, land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal zones, freshwater salinity etc.

17 Presentation downloadable from 17 The Techno-Process Underlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with earth systems these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects. To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems. Detrimental affects on earth systems Move 500-600 billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnes Take Waste Materials I am contemplating profitable bottom up change of immense proportion and importance. John Harrison, TecEco

18 Presentation downloadable from 18 Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process Takemanipulateand makeimpacts End of lifecycle impacts Greater Utility Less Utility Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows. There is no such place as away Use impacts. Materials are in the Techno- Sphere Utility zone Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flows

19 Presentation downloadable from 19 Moleconomic Flows Take Manipulate Make Use Waste [ Materials flow ] [ Underlying molecular flow ] If the underlying molecular flows are out of tune with nature there is damage to the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfcs, c=halogen compounds and CO 2 Moleconomics is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic, balance or minimally interfere with natural flows. To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our planet we must first fix the materials flows in a bottom up approach

20 Presentation downloadable from 20 Innovative New Materials - the Key to Sustainability By changing how we make things and what we make them with we can fix the underlying molecular flows that are destroying the natural homeostasis of our planet The choice of materials for building and construction controls emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, user comfort, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere.

21 Presentation downloadable from 21 Economically Driven Sustainability New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging flows. $ - ECONOMICS - $ Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.

22 Presentation downloadable from 22 Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change. # $ Demand Supply Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. Equilibrium Shift ECONOMICS Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth A measure of the degree of sustainability is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply. We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability

23 Presentation downloadable from 23 Changing the Technology Paradigm By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource 1 1.Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990 It is not so much a matter of dematerialisation as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO 2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms Or more simply – the technical paradigm determines what is or is not a resource!

24 Presentation downloadable from 24 Cultural Change is Happening! Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports STERN Report Lots of Talkfest IPCC Report Political change Branson Prize Live Earth (07/07/07) The media have an important growing role

25 Presentation downloadable from 25 Changing the Techno-Process Reduce Re-use Recycle => Materials => Take => manipulate => make => use => waste The Flow of Atoms and Molecules in the global commons Driven by fossil fuel energy with take and waste impacts. This is biomimicry! By changing the technology paradigms we can change the materials flows and thus the underlying molecular flows. Moleconomics

26 Presentation downloadable from 26 Nature is our Mentor (Biomimicry) All that is alive is very efficiently in balance with surrounding conditions including all else that is alive. The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another. Photosynthesis balances respiration. Growth balances disintegration. There is a strong need for similar efficiency and homeostatic balance in the techno process. To balance emissions of carbon dioxide with uses and waste nothing that has no natural role on the planet. By studying Nature we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be. (Wright, F.L. 1957:269) Nature provides us with survival knowledge from a four billion year old experiment. It is this knowledge, not our genetics that is the key. John Harrison

27 Presentation downloadable from 27 Biomimicry - Geomimicry All natural processes are very economical. We must also be MUCH more economical The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes. The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Geomimicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processes

28 Presentation downloadable from 28 Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers As peak oil starts to cut in and the price of transport rises sharply We should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilities We should be including CO 2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources. Jackdaws and bower bird recycle all sorts of things they find nearby based on physical property. The birds are not concerned about chemical composition and the nests they make could be described as a composite materials. TecEco cements are benign binders that can incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction problems and bind strongly to them by polar bonding with them. We can do the same as the Jackdaw or bower bird

29 Presentation downloadable from 29 Localized Low Transport Embodied Energy Materials No longer an option? As the price of fuel rises past peak oil, the use of localised low embodied energy materials for construction will have to be considered. We will have to mimic the jackdaw or bower bird.

30 Presentation downloadable from 30 Utilizing Carbon and Wastes During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and wastes. This is geomimicry CO 2 C Waste CO 2 Pervious pavement

31 Presentation downloadable from 31 Geomimicry There are 1.2-3 grams of magnesium and about.4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater. There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration. To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO 2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicry Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust.

32 Presentation downloadable from 32 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Large tonnages of carbon (7% of the crust) were put away during earths geological history as limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the activity of plants and animals. Orders of magnitude more than as coal or petroleum! Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn it into wood. These same plants and animals wasted nothing The waste from one is the food or home for another. Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in an insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing market. Such a market exists for building and construction materials.

33 Presentation downloadable from 33 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. It can only happen economically. To put an economic value on carbon and wastes We have not choice but to invent new technical paradigms such as offered by TecEco and the Global Sustainability Alliance (Gaia Engineering). Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigms By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as building materials we can economically reduce their concentration in the global commons. Materials are very important!

34 Presentation downloadable from 34 Why Magnesium Carbonates? Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO 2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment: Due to the lighter molar mass of magnesium more CO 2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show. At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element Sea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium at.412 g/l Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for the utilisation of other wastes. Seawater Reference Data g/l H 2 0 Cati on radiu s (pm) Chloride (Cl -- )19167 Sodium (Na + )10.5116 Sulfate (S04 -- )2.7? Magnesium (Mg ++ )1.2986 Calcium (Ca ++ ) 0.41 2114 Potassium (K + ) 0.39 9152

35 Presentation downloadable from 35 Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem Magnesium materials from Gaia Engineering are potential low cost. New kiln technology from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate to make binders with the CO 2 recycling to produce more carbonate building material to be used with these binders. How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming? The annual flux of CO 2 is around 12 billion tonnes ~= 22.99 billion tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite would have to be deposited each year. Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable. If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved! We must build with carbonate and waste

36 Presentation downloadable from 36 Only the Built Environment is Big Enough Source of graphics: Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007 The built environment is our footprint, the major proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and infrastructure

37 Presentation downloadable from 37 Building is Going Ballistic! The relative impact of the built environment is rising as the East catches up with the West! Source of graphic: Rick Fedrizzi SMB 2007

38 Presentation downloadable from 38 Huge Potential for Sequestration and Waste Utilisation in the Built Environment Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by. including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks. including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources. re engineering materials to reduce the lifetime energy of buildings A durable low pH high bonding binder system is required for effective waste utilisation such as TecEco Tec and Eco-Cements Many wastes including CO 2 can contribute to physical properties reducing lifetime energies CO 2 C Waste CO 2 Pervious pavement

39 Presentation downloadable from 39 Implementation of Carbon Trading The system must serve different requirements Incentives/costs as a result of increases or decreases in emissions National accounting Not impose a burden on The building construction and Rental industries (Affordability crisis anyway) Owners Comply with the Kyoto Protocol E.g. no double counting

40 Presentation downloadable from 40 WBCSD & WRI Published some guidelines that the Australian government seem to be following. According to the methodology: Emissions can be accounted for on a Control basis, or At an organisational or financial level Equity basis As in consolidations

41 Presentation downloadable from 41 WBCSD & WRI Everything must be accounted for at and organisational or equity level in order to apply incentives or disincentives, but at a national level double counting must be eliminated To help delineate direct and indirect emission sources, improve transparency, and provide utility for different types of organizations and different types of climate policies and business goals, three scopes (scope 1, scope 2, and scope 3) have been defined:

42 Presentation downloadable from 42 WBCSD & WRI Scopes Scope 1 Covers direct emissions from sources within the boundary of an organisation, such as fuel combustion and manufacturing processes. Scope 2 Covers indirect emissions from the consumption of purchased electricity, steam or heat produced by another organisation. Scope 2 emissions result from the combustion of fuel to generate the electricity, steam or heat and do not include emissions associated with the production of fuel. Scopes 1 and 2 are carefully defined to ensure that two or more organisations do not report the same emissions under the same scope (i.e. so double counting can be eliminated at a national level). Scope 3 Includes all other indirect emissions that are a consequence of an organisations activities but are not from sources owned or controlled by the organisation. These estimates are provided for information only as Scope 3 emissions and are not be required to be reported under the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007, but may be reported on a voluntary basis.

43 Presentation downloadable from 43 Implementation in Building and Construction Characterised by Long supply and waste chains with many different operators all contributing to emissions Fragmented representation at both the building and construction as well as use levels Some scope 1 emissions but mostly scope 2 and 3.

44 Presentation downloadable from 44 Nick Svenningson UNEP at SMB2007 The Built Environment Materials in use have a big influence on scope 2 emissions AASMIC believe materials (using factors) should be included (scope 3) Scope 3 emissions approx 10% (Interpreted from RMIT Report) (RMIT 30-50%) (GBCA 45%) Mainly lifetime heating, cooling and other running costs

45 Presentation downloadable from 45 Players BPIC ( The Building Products Innovation Council will be a major driving force in advocating a technical and building regulatory environment that will support a world class Australian building product manufacturing and supply base NATSPEC ( Founded in 1975, is a not-for-profit organisation that is owned by the design, build, construct and property industry through professional associations and government property groups. It is impartial and is not involved in advocacy or policy development. NATSPECs major service is the comprehensive national specification system endorsed by government and professional bodies. The specification is for all building structures with specialist packages for architects, interior designers, landscape architects, structural engineers, service engineers and domestic owners.

46 Presentation downloadable from 46 Players Green Building Council of Australia ( The GBCA is a national, not-for-profit organisation that is committed to developing a sustainable property industry for Australia by encouraging the adoption of green building practices. It is uniquely supported by both industry and governments across the country. GECA ( Good environmental choice - Committed to credible product information for sustainable development Asbec ( Claims to be a peak body? Many others

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