Presentation on theme: "John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar"— Presentation transcript:
1John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Sustainability Workshop – Hobart 1st May, 2008
2Urgent Fixes are Needed Water1/3 of world population stressed for waterBy /3 due to global warmingWasteAround 600 million tonnes.The underlying moleconomic flow is poisoning our worldCO2Causing global temperature risesEnergyPeak oil has passed and fossil fuel energy costs set to rise.FoodGrowing food shortages due to climate change and production of bio fuelsAll these problems are interconnectedTo solve these problems we need to change the way we do things and what we do them with!
3The Atmosphere Source: IPCC The Challenge is to Keep the Atmosphere Stable. To do this we must take a long term view and engineer a new way for us to live.Source: Sam Nelson GreenbaseEven if the annual flow of emissions was frozen today, the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would still reach double its pre-industrial levels by In fact, emissions are increasing rapidly and the level of 550 ppm could be reached as early as 2035.Source: 17 Feb 08Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6
4CO2 in the Atmosphere Year CO2 in the Atmosphere Gigaton CO2 BAU Emissions450 ppm?CO2 in the Atmosphere
5The Kyoto ProtocolA treaty intended to implement the objectives and principles agreed in the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).Requires governments to agree to quantified limits on their greenhouse gas emissions, through sequential rounds of negotiations for successive commitment periods.The Kyoto treaty is the result of political negotiation and diplomatic compromise and on the surface not a lot more than short term promises to reduce emissions that make politicians look good that their successors cannot possibly keep. It is not a strategy for survival in the future. A long term view is required.Constraint alone is not going to work
6We are Hooked On Fossil Fuel Energy Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions will be 41% higher in 2010 than in 1990 ( Ford, M., Matysek, A, Jakeman, G., Gurney, A & Fisher B. S. 2006, Perspectives on International Climate Change, paper presented at the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics society 50th Annual Conference).Emissions targets are unlikely to be met whilst fossil fuels remainA solution is needed of the utmost urgency to preserve history for many, many generations to come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the Virgin Earth PrizeGaia Engineering is the way to do so – John Harrison
7Correlation Between WIP and Emissions World Industrial Product (deflated world `GDP' in real value - i.e. World physical production).CO2 emissions (in CO2 mass units: Doubling time = 29 years. Data: CDIAC; statistics: GDI.The correlation between the WIP and the CO2 emissions is very high. The correlation coefficient r= 0.995, i.e. practically 1 (total correlation). Di Fazio’s work demonstrates that we cannot achieve sustainability through efficiency alone.Di Fazio, Alberto, The fallacy of pure efficiency gain measures to control future climate change, Astronomical Observatory of Rome and the Global Dynamics Institute
8SynopsisWe are too many and our influence too great. We must therefore accept our role of maintaining “spaceship earth” as planetary engineers and find ways of maintaining the level of carbon dioxide, oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere at desirable levels.We are too hooked on fossil fuels and cannot possibly arrest the alarming increases in carbon dioxide currently occurring through efficiency, emissions reduction or substitution by renewables.Constraint will not lift the third world to our level of affluence.We must find new technology platforms that will otherwise we have no hope of controlling population
9SynopsisWe have a good chance of preserving the future if we mimic nature by finding uses for carbon and other wastes.Uses for carbon and other wastes must result in a real value that puts profit in the pocket of a large number who will as a consequence wish to engage otherwise they cannot be implemented on the massive scale required.The markets created must be insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing.Building with man made carbonate is doable and most likely presents the only option we have for saving the planet from runaway global warming until such time as safe and reliable forms of energy alternative to fossil fuels can be developed, we more seriously take our relationship with the planet and our role as planetary engineers and custodians.
10Affect of Leakage on Geosequestration "The assumption of exclusive reliance on storage may be an extreme one, however the example illustrates that emphasis on energy efficiency and increased reliance on renewable energy must be priority areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. The higher the expected leakage rate and the larger the uncertainty, the less attractive geosequestration is compared to other mitigation alternatives such as shifting to renewable energy sources, and improved efficiency in production and consumption of energy."Source: CANA (2004). Carbon Leakage and Geosequestration, Climate Action Network Australia.Downloadable Model at
11Size of Carbon SinksModified from Figure 2 Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison. "Zero Emission Coal Power, a New Concept." from by the inclusion of a bar to represent sedimentary sinks
12Carbon Sink Permanence Carbonate sediment40,000,000 GtSequestration Permanence and timePlants 600 GtSoils and Detritus 1600 GtFossil Fuels 8,000 GtMethane Clathrates100,000 Gt
13Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis by plants and algaeConsumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals)Organic compounds made by autotrophsOrganic compounds made by heterotrophsCellular RespirationCellular Respiration burning and decayLimestone coal and oil burningGaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco-Cements)Decay by fungi and bacteriaCO2 in the air and waterMore about Gaia Engineering at
14John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Can Building and Construction Represents an Insatiable, Large and Indefinitely Continuing Market for Carbonate?The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth.It comprises buildings and infrastructure.Construction materials comprise70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.)40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.)Around 25 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis.The single biggest materials flow (after water) is concrete at around 17 billion tonnes or > 2 tonnes per man, woman and child on the planet.40% of total energy in the industrialised world (researchandmarkets)THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALSMaterials are our footprint on the planet and of first consideration in our quest to devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes.Building materials comprise:70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.)40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.)Why not use magnesium carbonate aggregates and building components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco to bind them together?
15The Earth System Atmosphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops.Small changes caused by man such as CO2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commons.AtmosphereAnthropo-sphereBiosphereGeosphereHydrosphere
16Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Atmospheric composition, climate, land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal zones, freshwater salinity etc.Source graphic: NASAEarth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are ideally homeostatic.
17John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar The Techno-ProcessDetrimental affects on earth systemsMove billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnesBiosphereAnthroposphereTakeGeosphereWasteMaterialsManipulateMake and UseUnderlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with earth systems these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects.THE TECHNO-PROCESSMost of you will have by now come to realise that there is a process often described as the “take use waste process” that I call the techno process. Unfortunately there are affects on global systems that are detrimental.To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems.I am contemplating profitable bottom up change of immense proportion and importance. John Harrison, TecEco
18Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flowsTake manipulate and make impactsEnd of lifecycle impactsUse impacts. Materials are in the Techno-Sphere Utility zoneThere is no such place as “away”Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows.Greater UtilityLess Utility
19John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Moleconomic FlowsTake → Manipulate → Make → Use → Waste[ ←Materials flow→ ][ ← Underlying molecular flow → ]Moleconomics is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic, balance or minimally interfere with natural flows.If the underlying molecular flows are “out of tune” with nature there is damage to the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfc’s, c=halogen compounds and CO2MOLECONOMIC FLOWSUnderlying the flow of materials through the techno process is a moleconomic flow of molecules that is out of tune with the rest of the planet and causing damage to the environment. If you want to know more about the science of moleconomics please go to our web site and look under projects.To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our planet we must first fix the materials flows in a bottom up approach
20Innovative New Materials - the Key to Sustainability The choice of materials for building and construction controls emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, user comfort, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere.By changing how we make “things” and what we make them with we can fix the underlying molecular flows that are destroying the natural homeostasis of our planet
21Economically Driven Sustainability John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarEconomically Driven SustainabilityNew, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging flows.ECONOMICALLY DRIVEN SUSTAINABILITYOur approach must not only be holistic, but also economic if we are to have any hope of success.Working for sustainability market forces will make all the difference.The challenge is to move the supply and demand of resources towards more sustainable outcomes by stimulating and harnessing human behaviours which underlay economic demand phenomena, through cultural change push by governments and other leaders, and real improvement in technical and other properties as I will explain in the next slide.Sustainable processes like the new TecEco technologies are more efficient and therefore more economic.$ - ECONOMICS - $Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.
22Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarConsider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology MeetIncrease in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change.$SupplyEquilibriumShiftGreater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growthECONOMICSWe must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainabilityDemandCULTURAL CHANGE AND PARADIGM SHIFTS IN TECHNOLOGYChanges in the market interaction of demand and supply reducing energy and resource usage and detrimental linkages with the planet can be achieved through cultural change and innovative changes in the technical paradigm.Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation.#A measure of the degree of sustainability is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply.
23Changing the Technology Paradigm John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarChanging the Technology ParadigmIt is not so much a matter of “dematerialisation” as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms“By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource1”Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990Or more simply – the technical paradigm determines what is or is not a resource!
24Cultural Change is Happening! Al Gore (SOS)CSIRO reportsSTERN ReportLots of TalkfestIPCC ReportPolitical changeBranson PrizeLive Earth (07/07/07)The media have an important growing role
25Changing the Techno-Process John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarTake => manipulate => make => use => wasteDriven by fossil fuel energy with take and waste impacts.By changing the technology paradigms we can change the materials flows and thus the underlying molecular flows.Reduce Re-use RecycleThis is biomimicry!INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY – CHANGING THE TECHNO-PROCESSI am sure you will have all heard of the three R’s. Reduce, reuse and recycle, to which some add re-make.Industrial ecology, the idea that the waste output of one kind of activity can be resource input for another, is most easily achieved in the construction industry.The materials used determine many properties including weight, embodied energies, fuel related and chemical emissions, lifetime energies, user comfort and health, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere. If you cannot recycle for chemical property recycle on the basis of physical properties the material would contribute to a composite.There is huge scope for sequestration and conversion of waste to resource given the massive size of the materials flows involved in the built environment. With the right materials technology, because of its sheer size, the built environment could reduce the take from the bio-geo-sphere and utilise many different wastes including carbon dioxide=> Materials =>The Flow of Atoms and Molecules in the global commonsMoleconomics
26Nature is our Mentor (Biomimicry) John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarNature is our Mentor (Biomimicry)All that is alive is very efficiently in balance with surrounding conditions including all else that is alive.The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another.Photosynthesis balances respiration.Growth balances disintegration.There is a strong need for similar efficiency and homeostatic balance in the techno process.To balance emissions of carbon dioxide with uses and waste nothing that has no natural role on the planet.By studying Nature we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be.” (Wright, F.L. 1957:269)BIOMIMICRYThe philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet.Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another.We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes.Nature provides us with survival knowledge from a four billion year old experiment. It is this knowledge, not our genetics that is the key.John Harrison
27Biomimicry - Geomimicry John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarBiomimicry - GeomimicryThe term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine BenyusBiomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration.It involves nature as model, measure and mentor.Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes.The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy.Geomimicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processesAll natural processes are very economical. We must also be MUCH more economical
28Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarBiomimicry - Ultimate RecyclersAs peak oil starts to cut in and the price of transport rises sharplyWe should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilitiesWe should be including CO2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources.Jackdaws and bower bird recycle all sorts of things they find nearby based on physical property. The birds are not concerned about chemical composition and the nests they make could be described as a composite materials.TecEco cements are benign binders that can incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction problems and bind strongly to them by polar bonding with them. We can do the same as the Jackdaw or bower bird
29Localized Low Transport Embodied Energy Materials John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarLocalized Low Transport Embodied Energy MaterialsNo longer an option?As the price of fuel rises past peak oil, the use of localised low embodied energy materials for construction will have to be considered. We will have to mimic the jackdaw or bower bird.
30Utilizing Carbon and Wastes John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarDuring earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals.Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals.CO2In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and wastes. This is “geomimicry”CO2BIOMIMICRYThe philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet.Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another.We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes.CO2CCO2WastePervious pavement
31John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar GeomimicryThere are grams of magnesium and about .4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater.There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration.To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicryCarbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust.
32Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarLarge tonnages of carbon (7% of the crust) were put away during earth’s geological history as limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the activity of plants and animals.Orders of magnitude more than as coal or petroleum!Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn it into wood.These same plants and animals wasted nothingThe waste from one is the food or home for another.Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in an insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing market.Such a market exists for building and construction materials.
33Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarGeomimicry for Planetary Engineers?Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do.It can only happen economically.To put an economic value on carbon and wastesWe have not choice but to invent new technical paradigms such as offered by TecEco and the Global Sustainability Alliance (Gaia Engineering).Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigmsBy using carbon dioxide and other wastes as building materials we can economically reduce their concentration in the global commons.Materials are very important!
34Why Magnesium Carbonates? Seawater Reference Datag/l H20Cation radius (pm)Chloride (Cl--)19167Sodium (Na+)10.5116Sulfate (S04--)2.7?Magnesium (Mg++)1.2986Calcium (Ca++)0.412114Potassium (K+)0.399152Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment:Due to the lighter molar mass of magnesium more CO2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show.At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant elementSea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium at .412 g/lMagnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for the utilisation of other wastes.
35John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming ProblemJohn Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarMagnesium materials from Gaia Engineering are potential low cost. New kiln technology from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate to make binders with the CO2 recycling to produce more carbonate building material to be used with these binders.How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming?The annual flux of CO2 is around 12 billion tonnes ~= billion tonnes magnesiteThe density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre322.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite would have to be deposited each year.Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable.If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved!We must build with carbonate and waste
36Only the Built Environment is Big Enough The built environment is our footprint, the major proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and infrastructureSource of graphics: Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007
37Building is Going Ballistic! Source of graphic: Rick Fedrizzi SMB 2007The relative impact of the built environment is rising as the East catches up with the West!
38John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Huge Potential for Sequestration and Waste Utilisation in the Built EnvironmentJohn Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarReducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by.including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks.including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources.re engineering materials to reduce the lifetime energy of buildingsA durable low pH high bonding binder system is required for effective waste utilisation such as TecEco Tec and Eco-CementsMany wastes including CO2 can contribute to physical properties reducing lifetime energiesCO2CO2UTILISING WASTE IN CITIESTecEco advocate the development of materials that include waste based on physical as well as chemical properties and that reduce the lifetime energy of buildings by introducing new properties.CO2CCO2WastePervious pavement
39Implementation of Carbon Trading The system must serve different requirementsIncentives/costs as a result of increases or decreases in emissionsNational accountingNot impose a burden onThe building construction andRental industries (Affordability crisis anyway)OwnersComply with the Kyoto ProtocolE.g. no double counting
40WBCSD & WRIPublished some guidelines that the Australian government seem to be following.According to the methodology:Emissions can be accounted for on aControl basis, orAt an organisational or financial levelEquity basisAs in consolidations
41WBCSD & WRIEverything must be accounted for at and organisational or equity level in order to apply incentives or disincentives, but at a national level double counting must be eliminatedTo help delineate direct and indirect emission sources, improve transparency, and provide utility for different types of organizations and different types of climate policies and business goals, three “scopes” (scope 1, scope 2, and scope 3) have been defined:
42WBCSD & WRI ScopesScope 1 Covers direct emissions from sources within the boundary of an organisation, such as fuel combustion and manufacturing processes.Scope 2 Covers indirect emissions from the consumption of purchased electricity, steam or heat produced by another organisation. Scope 2 emissions result from the combustion of fuel to generate the electricity, steam or heat and do not include emissions associated with the production of fuel. Scopes 1 and 2 are carefully defined to ensure that two or more organisations do not report the same emissions under the same scope (i.e. so double counting can be eliminated at a national level).Scope 3 Includes all other indirect emissions that are a consequence of an organisation’s activities but are not from sources owned or controlled by the organisation. These estimates are provided for information only as Scope 3 emissions and are not be required to be reported under the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007 , but may be reported on a voluntary basis.
43Implementation in Building and Construction Characterised byLong supply and waste chains with many different operators all contributing to emissionsFragmented representation at both the building and construction as well as use levelsSome scope 1 emissions but mostly scope 2 and 3.
44The Built Environment(RMIT 30-50%)(GBCA 45%)Materials in use have a big influence on scope 2 emissionsAASMIC believe materials (using factors) should be included (scope 3)Scope 3 emissions approx 10% (Interpreted from RMIT Report)Mainly lifetime heating, cooling and other running costsNick Svenningson UNEP at SMB2007
45Players BPIC (http://www.bpic.asn.au/bpic_bpi.html) The Building Products Innovation Council will be a major driving force in advocating a technical and building regulatory environment that will support a world class Australian building product manufacturing and supply baseNATSPEC (http://www.natspec.com.au/)Founded in 1975, is a not-for-profit organisation that is owned by the design, build, construct and property industry through professional associations and government property groups. It is impartial and is not involved in advocacy or policy development. NATSPEC’s major service is the comprehensive national specification system endorsed by government and professional bodies. The specification is for all building structures with specialist packages for architects, interior designers, landscape architects, structural engineers, service engineers and domestic owners.
46Players Green Building Council of Australia (http://www.gbcaus.org/) The GBCA is a national, not-for-profit organisation that is committed to developing a sustainable property industry for Australia by encouraging the adoption of green building practices. It is uniquely supported by both industry and governments across the country.GECA (http://www.aela.org.au/)Good environmental choice - Committed to credible product information for sustainable development Asbec (http://www.asbec.asn.au/about)Claims to be a peak body?Many others