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Chapter 5 Personality and Consumer Behavior
©2000 Prentice Hall What is Personality? The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.
©2000 Prentice Hall The Nature of Personality Personality reflects individual differences Personality is consistent and enduring Personality can change
©2000 Prentice Hall Theories of Personality Freudian theory –Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation Neo-Freudian personality theory –Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality Trait theory –Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits
©2000 Prentice Hall Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory A theory of motivation and personality that postulates that unconscious needs and drives, particularly sexual and other biological drives, are the basis of human motivation and personality.
©2000 Prentice Hall Neo-Freudian Personality Theory A school of psychology that stresses the fundamental role of social relationships in the formation and development of personality.
©2000 Prentice Hall Trait Theory A theory of personality that focuses on the measurement of specific psychological characteristics.
©2000 Prentice Hall Freudian Theory Id –Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction Superego –Individuals internal expression of societys moral and ethical codes of conduct Ego –Individuals conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego
©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 5.2 A Representation of the Interrelationships among the Id, Ego, and Superego ID System 1 ID System 1 SUPEREG O System 2 SUPEREG O System 2 EGO System 3 Gratification
©2000 Prentice Hall Freudian Theory and Product Personality Consumer researchers using Freuds personality theory see consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the consumers own personality
©2000 Prentice Hall Horneys CAD Theory Using the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be classified into: –Compliant individuals –Aggressive individuals –Detached individuals
©2000 Prentice Hall Compliant Personality One of three personality types identified by Karen Horney.The compliant person is one who moves toward others e.g., one who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others.
©2000 Prentice Hall Aggressive Personality One of three personality types identified by Karen Horney. The aggressive person is one who moves against others (e.g., competes with others).
©2000 Prentice Hall Detached Personality One of three personality types identified by Karen Horney. The detached person is one who moves away from others (e.g., who desires independence, self- sufficiency, and freedom from obligations).
©2000 Prentice Hall Trait Theory Orientation is primarily quantitative or empirical Trait theorists concerned with the construction of personality tests that enable them to pinpoint individual differences
©2000 Prentice Hall Consumer Innovativeness The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services or new practices.
©2000 Prentice Hall Consumer Materialism A personality-like trait of individuals who regard possessions as particularly essential to their identities and lives.
©2000 Prentice Hall Consumer Ethnocentrism A consumers predisposition to accept or reject foreign- made products.
©2000 Prentice Hall Personality and Consumer Diversity Some specific consumer traits are of particular interest to marketers: –Consumer Innovativeness –Cognitive Personality Factors –Consumer Materialism, Fixated Consumption Behavior, and Compulsive Consumption –Consumer Ethnocentrism
©2000 Prentice Hall Consumer Innovators Those consumers who are likely to be first to try new products, services, or practices
©2000 Prentice Hall Distinguishing Innovators from Non-Innovators Some traits that have been useful are: –Consumer Innovativeness –Dogmatism –Social character –Optimum stimulation level –Variety-novelty seeking
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.1 A Consumer Innovativeness Scale In general, I am among the last in my circle of friends to buy a new (rock album a ) when it appears b. If I head that a (new rock album) was available in the store, I would be interested enough to buy it. Compared to my friends, I own few (rock albums). b In general, I am the last in my circle of friends to know the (titles of the latest rock albums). b I will buy a new(rock album), even if I havent heard it yet. I know the names of (new rock acts) before other people do. Note: Measured on a 5-point agreement scale. a The product category and related wording is altered to fit the purpose of the researcher. b Items with a ( b ) are negatively worded and are scored inversely. Source: Ronald E. Goldsmith and Charles F. Hofacker, Measuring Consumer Innovativeness, Journal o the Academy of Marketing Science 19 (1991), 212. Copyright © 1991 Academy of Marketing Science.
©2000 Prentice Hall Dogmatism A personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs.
©2000 Prentice Hall Dogmatism Consumers low in dogmatism (open-minded) are more likely to prefer innovative products to established or traditional alternatives Highly dogmatic consumers tend to be more receptive to ads for new products or services that contain an appeal from an authoritative figure
©2000 Prentice Hall Inner- Directed Consumers Consumers who tend to rely on their own inner values or standards in evaluating new products and are likely to be consumer innovators.
©2000 Prentice Hall Other- Directed Consumers Consumers who tend to look to others for direction on what is right and wrong. They are less likely to be consumer innovators.
©2000 Prentice Hall Social Character Inner-directed people seem to prefer ads that stress product features and personal benefits Other-directed people prefer ads that feature an approving social environment or social acceptance
©2000 Prentice Hall Optimum Stimulation Levels (OSL) A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences. High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers.
©2000 Prentice Hall Variety- Novelty Seeking A personality trait similar to OSL, which measures a consumers degree to variety seeking
©2000 Prentice Hall Forms of Variety-Novelty Seeking Exploratory Purchase Behavior Vicarious Exploration Use Innovativeness
©2000 Prentice Hall Cognitive Personality Factors Need for cognition –A persons craving for enjoyment of thinking Visualizers versus verbalizers –A persons preference for information presented visually or verbally
©2000 Prentice Hall Visualizers Consumers who prefer visual information and products that stress the visual, such as membership in a videotape cassette club.
©2000 Prentice Hall Verbalizers Consumers who prefer verbal or written information and products, such as membership in book clubs or audiotape clubs
©2000 Prentice Hall Need for Cognition (NC) Consumers high in NC are more likely to respond to as rich in product-related information or description Consumers low in NC are more likely to be attracted to background or peripheral aspects of an ad
©2000 Prentice Hall From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption Consumer materialism –The extent to which a person is considered materialistic Fixed consumption behavior –Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products Compulsive consumption behavior –Addicted or out-of-control consumers
©2000 Prentice Hall Materialistic People Value acquiring and showing- off possessions Are particularly self-centered and selfish Seek lifestyles full of possessions Have many possessions that do not lead to greater happiness
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.2 Sample Items from a Materialism Scale SUCCESS The things I own say a lot about how well Im doing in life. I dont place much emphasis on the amount of material objects people own as a sign of success. a I like to own things that impress people. CENTRALITY I enjoy spending money on things that arent practical. I try to keep my life simple, as far as possessions are concerned. a Buying things gives me a lot of pleasure. HAPPINESS Id be happier if I could afford to buy more things. I have all the things I really need to enjoy life. a It sometimes bothers me quite a bit that I cant afford to buy all the things Id like.
©2000 Prentice Hall Fixated Consumers Have a deep interest in a particular object or product category Have a willingness to go to considerable lengths to secure items in the category of interest Have the dedication of a considerable amount of discretionary time and money to searching out the product
©2000 Prentice Hall Compulsive Consumption Consumers who are compulsive buyers have an addiction; in some respects, they are out of control and their actions may have damaging consequences to them and to those around them.
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.3 Sample Items from Scales to Measure Compulsive Buying VALENCE, DASTOUS, AD FORTIER COMPUSIVE BUYING SCALE 1. When I have money, I cannot help but spend part or the whole of it. 2. I am often impulsive in my buying behavior. 3. As soon as I enter a shopping center, I have an irresistible urge to go into a shop to buy something. 4. I am one of those people who often responds to direct mail offers. 5. I have often bought a product that I did not need, while knowing I had very little money left. FABER AND OGUINN COMPULSIVE BUYING SCALE 1. If I have any money left at the end of the pay period, I just have to spend it. 2. I felt others would be horrified if they know my spending habits. 3. I have bought things though I couldnt afford them. 4. I wrote a check when I knew I didnt have enough money in the bank to cover it. 5. I bought something in order to make myself feel better.
©2000 Prentice Hall Consumer Ethnocentrism Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.4 The Consumer Ethnocentrism Scale- CETSCALE 1. American people should always buy American-made products instead of imports. 2. Only those products that are unavailable in the U.S. should be imported. 3. Buy American-made products. Keep America working. 4. American products, first, last, and foremost. 5. Purchasing foreign-made products is un-American. 6. It is not right to purchase foreign products, because it puts Americans out of jobs. 7. A real American should always buy American-made products. 8. We should purchase products manufactured in America instead of letting other countries get rich off us. 9. It is always best to purchase American products.
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.4 continued 10. There should be very little trading or purchasing of goods from other countries unless out of necessity. 11. Americans should not buy foreign products, because this hurts American business and causes unemployment. 12. Curbs should be put on all imports. 13. It may cost me in the long run but I prefer to support American products. 14. Foreigners should not be allowed to put their products on our markets. 15. Foreign products should be taxed heavily to reduce their entry into the U.S. 16. We should buy from foreign countries only those products that we cannot obtain within our own country. 17.American consumers who purchase products made in other countries are responsible or putting their fellow Americans out of work.
©2000 Prentice Hall Issues in Brand Personality Brand personification Product personality and gender Personality and color
©2000 Prentice Hall Brand Personification Specific personality-type traits or characteristics ascribed by consumers to different brands.
©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 5.8 A Brand Personality Framework Brand Personality RuggednessSophisticationCompetenceExcitementSincerity Down-to- earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up-to-date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper class Charming Outdoorsy Tough
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.5 The Personalitylike Associations of Selected Colors Commands respect, authority Americas favored color IBM holds the title to blue Associated with club soda Men seek products packaged in blue Houses painted blue are avoided Low-calorie, skim milk Coffee in a blue can perceived a mild Caution, novelty, temporary, warmth Eyes register it faster Coffee in yellow can tasted weak Stops traffic Sells a house Secure, natural, relaxed or easy going, living things Good work environment Associated with vegetables and chewing gum Canada Dry ginger ale sales increased when it changed sugar-free package from red to green and white TABLE NOT COMPLETE ON PAGE PROOFS BLUE YELLOW GREEN
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.5 continued Human, exciting, hot, passionate, strong Makes food smell better Coffee in a red can perceived at rich Women have a preference for bluish red Men have a preference for yellowish red Coca-Cola owns red Powerful, affordable, informal Draws attention quickly Informal and relaxed, masculine, nature Coffee in a dark-brown can was too strong Men seek products packaged in brown Goodness, purity, chastity, cleanliness, delicacy, refinement, formality Suggests reduced calories Pure and wholesome food Clean, bath products, feminine Sophistication, power, authority, mystery Powerful clothing High-tech electronics Regal, wealthy, statelySuggests premium price RED ORANGE BROWN WHITE BLACK SILVER, GOLD
©2000 Prentice Hall Different Self-Images Actual Self- Image Ideal Self-Image Ideal Social Self-Image Social Self-Image Expected Self-Image
©2000 Prentice Hall Extended Self Modification or changing of the self by which consumers use self-altering products or services to conform to or take on the appearance of a particular types of person (e.g., a biker, a physician, a lawyer, a college professor).
©2000 Prentice Hall Role A pattern of behavior expected of an individual in a specific social position, such as mother, daughter, teacher, lawyer. One person may have a number of different roles, each of which is relevant in the context of a specific social situation.
©2000 Prentice Hall Actual Self- Image The image that an individual has of himself or herself as a certain kind of person, with certain characteristic traits, habits, possessions, relationships, and behavior.
©2000 Prentice Hall Ideal Self- Image How individuals would like to perceive themselves (as opposed to Actual Self- Image--the way they do perceive themselves).
©2000 Prentice Hall Social Self- Image How consumers feel others see them.
©2000 Prentice Hall Ideal Social Self-Image How consumers would like others to see them.
©2000 Prentice Hall Expected Self- Image How consumers expect to see themselves at some specified future time.
©2000 Prentice Hall Ways Possessions Can Extend the Self Actually Symbolically By Conferring Status By Bestowing Feelings of Immortality By Endowing With Magical Powers
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.6 Sample Items from an Extended Self-Survey* My ___ holds a special place in my life. My ___ is central to my identity. I feel emotionally attached to my ___. My ___ helps me narrow the gap between what I am and try to be. If my ___ was stolen from me I will feel as if part of me is missing. I would be a different person without my___. I take god care of my ___. I trust my ___. *A six-point agree-disagree scale as used.
©2000 Prentice Hall Vanity and Consumer Behavior Vanity has been investigated in terms of –Physical Vanity –Achievement Vanity
©2000 Prentice Hall Table 5.7 Sample Items from a Vanity Scale PHYSICAL-CONCERN ITEMS 1. The way I look is extremely important to me. 2. I am very concerned with my appearance. 3. It is important that I always look good. PHYSICAL-VIEW ITEMS 1. People notice how attractive I am. 2. People are envious of my good looks. 3. My body is sexually appealing. ACHIEVEMENT-CONERN ITEMS 1. Professional achievements are an obsession with me. 2. Achieving greater success than my peers is important to men. 3. I want my achievements to be recognized by others. ACHIEVEMENT-VIEW ITEMS 1. My achievements are highly regarded by others. 2. I am a good example of professional success. 3. Others wish they were as successful as me.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc 1 Chapter 4 Personality, Self-Image, and Life Style Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.
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