Presentation on theme: "Personality and Consumer Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1 Personality and Consumer Behavior Chapter 5Personality and Consumer Behavior
2 What is Personality?The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.
3 The Nature of Personality Personality reflects individual differencesPersonality is consistent and enduringPersonality can change
4 Theories of Personality Freudian theoryUnconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivationNeo-Freudian personality theorySocial relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personalityTrait theoryQuantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits
5 Psychoanalytic Theory FreudianPsychoanalytic TheoryA theory of motivation and personality that postulates that unconscious needs and drives, particularly sexual and other biological drives, are the basis of human motivation and personality.
6 Neo-Freudian Personality Theory A school of psychology that stresses the fundamental role of social relationships in the formation and development of personality.
7 Trait TheoryA theory of personality that focuses on the measurement of specific psychological characteristics.
8 Freudian Theory Id Superego Ego Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfactionSuperegoIndividual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conductEgoIndividual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego
9 Figure 5.2 A Representation of the Interrelationships among the Id, Ego, and Superego System 1EGO System 3GratificationSUPEREGOSystem 2
10 Freudian Theory and “Product Personality” Consumer researchers using Freud’s personality theory see consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the consumer’s own personality
11 Horney’s CAD TheoryUsing the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be classified into:Compliant individualsAggressive individualsDetached individuals
12 Compliant Personality One of three personality types identified by Karen Horney.The compliant person is one who moves toward others e.g., one who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others.
13 Aggressive Personality One of three personality types identified by Karen Horney. The aggressive person is one who moves against others (e.g., competes with others).
14 Detached PersonalityOne of three personality types identified by Karen Horney. The detached person is one who moves away from others (e.g., who desires independence, self-sufficiency, and freedom from obligations).
15 Trait Theory Orientation is primarily quantitative or empirical Trait theorists concerned with the construction of personality tests that enable them to pinpoint individual differences
16 Consumer Innovativeness The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services or new practices.
17 Consumer MaterialismA personality-like trait of individuals who regard possessions as particularly essential to their identities and lives.
18 Consumer Ethnocentrism A consumer’s predisposition to accept or reject foreign-made products.
19 Personality and Consumer Diversity Some specific consumer traits are of particular interest to marketers:Consumer InnovativenessCognitive Personality FactorsConsumer Materialism, Fixated Consumption Behavior, and Compulsive ConsumptionConsumer Ethnocentrism
20 Consumer InnovatorsThose consumers who are likely to be first to try new products, services, or practices
21 Distinguishing Innovators from Non-Innovators Some traits that have been useful are:Consumer InnovativenessDogmatismSocial characterOptimum stimulation levelVariety-novelty seeking
23 DogmatismA personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs.
24 DogmatismConsumers low in dogmatism (open-minded) are more likely to prefer innovative products to established or traditional alternativesHighly dogmatic consumers tend to be more receptive to ads for new products or services that contain an appeal from an authoritative figure
25 Inner-Directed Consumers Consumers who tend to rely on their own “inner” values or standards in evaluating new products and are likely to be consumer innovators.
26 Other-Directed Consumers Consumers who tend to look to others for direction on what is “right” and “wrong.” They are less likely to be consumer innovators.
27 Social CharacterInner-directed people seem to prefer ads that stress product features and personal benefitsOther-directed people prefer ads that feature an approving social environment or social acceptance
28 Optimum Stimulation Levels (OSL) A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences. High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers.
29 Variety-Novelty Seeking A personality trait similar to OSL, which measures a consumer’s degree to variety seeking
30 Forms of Variety-Novelty Seeking Exploratory Purchase BehaviorVicarious ExplorationUse Innovativeness
31 Cognitive Personality Factors Need for cognitionA person’s craving for enjoyment of thinkingVisualizers versus verbalizersA person’s preference for information presented visually or verbally
32 VisualizersConsumers who prefer visual information and products that stress the visual, such as membership in a videotape cassette club.
33 VerbalizersConsumers who prefer verbal or written information and products, such as membership in book clubs or audiotape clubs
34 Need for Cognition (NC) Consumers high in NC are more likely to respond to as rich in product-related information or descriptionConsumers low in NC are more likely to be attracted to background or peripheral aspects of an ad
35 From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic”Fixed consumption behaviorConsumers fixated on certain products or categories of productsCompulsive consumption behavior“Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers
36 Materialistic People Value acquiring and showing-off possessions Are particularly self-centered and selfishSeek lifestyles full of possessionsHave many possessions that do not lead to greater happiness
37 Table 5.2 Sample Items from a Materialism Scale SUCCESSThe things I own say a lot about how well I’m doing in life.I don’t place much emphasis on the amount of material objects people own as a sign of success.aI like to own things that impress people.CENTRALITYI enjoy spending money on things that aren’t practical.I try to keep my life simple, as far as possessions are concerned.aBuying things gives me a lot of pleasure.HAPPINESSI’d be happier if I could afford to buy more things.I have all the things I really need to enjoy life.aIt sometimes bothers me quite a bit that I can’t afford to buy all the things I’d like.
38 Fixated Consumers Have a deep interest in a particular object or product categoryHave a willingness to go to considerable lengths to secure items in the category of interestHave the dedication of a considerable amount of discretionary time and money to searching out the product
39 Compulsive Consumption Consumers who are compulsive buyers have an addiction; in some respects, they are out of control and their actions may have damaging consequences to them and to those around them.
40 Table 5.3 Sample Items from Scales to Measure Compulsive Buying VALENCE, D’ASTOUS, AD FORTIER COMPUSIVE BUYING SCALE1. When I have money, I cannot help but spend part or the whole of it.2. I am often impulsive in my buying behavior.3. As soon as I enter a shopping center, I have an irresistible urge to go into a shop to buy something.4. I am one of those people who often responds to direct mail offers.5. I have often bought a product that I did not need, while knowing I had very little money left.FABER AND O’GUINN COMPULSIVE BUYING SCALE1. If I have any money left at the end of the pay period, I just have to spend it.2. I felt others would be horrified if they know my spending habits.3. I have bought things though I couldn’t afford them.4. I wrote a check when I knew I didn’t have enough money in the bank to cover it.5. I bought something in order to make myself feel better.
41 Consumer Ethnocentrism Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made productsThey can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes
42 Table 5.4 The Consumer Ethnocentrism Scale-CETSCALE 1. American people should always buy American-made products instead of imports.2. Only those products that are unavailable in the U.S. should be imported.3. Buy American-made products. Keep America working.4. American products, first, last, and foremost.5. Purchasing foreign-made products is un-American.6. It is not right to purchase foreign products, because it puts Americans out of jobs.7. A real American should always buy American-made products.8. We should purchase products manufactured in America instead of letting other countries get rich off us.9. It is always best to purchase American products.
43 Table 5.4 continued10. There should be very little trading or purchasing of goods from other countries unless out of necessity.11. Americans should not buy foreign products, because this hurts American business and causes unemployment.12. Curbs should be put on all imports.13. It may cost me in the long run but I prefer to support American products.14. Foreigners should not be allowed to put their products on our markets.15. Foreign products should be taxed heavily to reduce their entry into the U.S.16. We should buy from foreign countries only those products that we cannot obtain within our own country.17.American consumers who purchase products made in other countries are responsible or putting their fellow Americans out of work.
44 Issues in Brand Personality Brand personificationProduct personality and genderPersonality and color
45 Brand Personification Specific “personality-type” traits or characteristics ascribed by consumers to different brands.
46 Figure 5.8 A Brand Personality Framework SincerityExcitementCompetenceSophisticationRuggednessDown-to-earthHonestWholesomeCheerfulDaringSpiritedImaginativeUp-to-dateReliableIntelligentSuccessfulUpper classCharmingOutdoorsyTough
47 Table 5.5 The Personalitylike Associations of Selected Colors TABLE NOT COMPLETE ON PAGE PROOFSTable 5.5 The Personalitylike Associations of Selected ColorsBLUECommands respect, authorityAmerica’s favored colorIBM holds the title to blueAssociated with club sodaMen seek products packaged in blueHouses painted blue are avoidedLow-calorie, skim milkCoffee in a blue can perceived a “mild”YELLOWCaution, novelty, temporary, warmthEyes register it fasterCoffee in yellow can tasted “weak”Stops trafficSells a houseGREENSecure, natural, relaxed or easy going, living thingsGood work environmentAssociated with vegetables and chewing gumCanada Dry ginger ale sales increased when it changed sugar-free package from red to green and white
48 Table 5.5 continued RED Human, exciting, hot, passionate, strong Makes food “smell” betterCoffee in a red can perceived at “rich”Women have a preference for bluish redMen have a preference for yellowish redCoca-Cola “owns” redORANGEPowerful, affordable, informalDraws attention quicklyBROWNInformal and relaxed, masculine, natureCoffee in a dark-brown can was “too strong”Men seek products packaged in brownWHITEGoodness, purity, chastity, cleanliness, delicacy, refinement, formalitySuggests reduced caloriesPure and wholesome foodClean, bath products, feminineBLACKSophistication, power, authority, mysteryPowerful clothingHigh-tech electronicsSILVER, GOLDRegal, wealthy, statelySuggests premium price
49 Different Self-Images Actual Self-ImageIdeal Self-ImageIdeal SocialSelf-ImageSocial Self-ImageExpectedSelf-Image
50 Extended SelfModification or changing of the self by which consumers use self-altering products or services to conform to or take on the appearance of a particular types of person (e.g., a biker, a physician, a lawyer, a college professor).
51 RoleA pattern of behavior expected of an individual in a specific social position, such as mother, daughter, teacher, lawyer. One person may have a number of different roles, each of which is relevant in the context of a specific social situation.
52 Actual Self-ImageThe image that an individual has of himself or herself as a certain kind of person, with certain characteristic traits, habits, possessions, relationships, and behavior.
53 Ideal Self-ImageHow individuals would like to perceive themselves (as opposed to Actual Self-Image--the way they do perceive themselves).
54 How consumers feel others see them. Social Self-ImageHow consumers feel others see them.
55 Ideal Social Self-Image How consumers would like others to see them.
56 How consumers expect to see themselves at some specified future time. Expected Self-ImageHow consumers expect to see themselves at some specified future time.
57 Ways Possessions Can Extend the Self ActuallySymbolicallyBy Conferring StatusBy Bestowing Feelings of ImmortalityBy Endowing With Magical Powers
58 Table 5.6 Sample Items from an Extended Self-Survey* My ___ holds a special place in my life.My ___ is central to my identity.I feel emotionally attached to my ___.My ___ helps me narrow the gap between what I am and try to be.If my ___ was stolen from me I will feel as if part of me is missing.I would be a different person without my___.I take god care of my ___.I trust my ___.*A six-point agree-disagree scale as used.
59 Vanity and Consumer Behavior Vanity has been investigated in terms ofPhysical VanityAchievement Vanity
60 Table 5.7 Sample Items from a Vanity Scale PHYSICAL-CONCERN ITEMS1. The way I look is extremely important to me.2. I am very concerned with my appearance.3. It is important that I always look good.PHYSICAL-VIEW ITEMS1. People notice how attractive I am.2. People are envious of my good looks.3. My body is sexually appealing.ACHIEVEMENT-CONERN ITEMS1. Professional achievements are an obsession with me.2. Achieving greater success than my peers is important to men.3. I want my achievements to be recognized by others.ACHIEVEMENT-VIEW ITEMS1. My achievements are highly regarded by others.2. I am a good example of professional success.3. Others wish they were as successful as me.