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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc 1 Chapter 4 Personality, Self-Image, and Life Style Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc 1 Chapter 4 Personality, Self-Image, and Life Style Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc 1 Chapter 4 Personality, Self-Image, and Life Style Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-2 Opening Vignette  Do you see yourself as beautiful?  Only1% of all women see themselves as beautiful  Most ads portray an ideal image that is unattainable  Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-3 What Is Personality? The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-4 The Nature of Personality Personality reflects individual differences Personality is consistent and enduring Personality can change

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-5 Theories of Personality Freudian theory –Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation –Three interacting systems Id: primitive and impulsive drives Superego: Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct Ego: Individual’s conscious control »continued

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-6 Theories of Personality Neo-Freudian personality theory –Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality – e.g., CAD theory

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-7 Horney’s CAD Theory Using the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be classified into: –Compliant individuals –Aggressive individuals –Detached individuals

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-8 CAD theory Compliant Personality –One who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others. Aggressive Personality –One who moves against others (e.g., competes with others, desires to excel and win admiration). Detached Personality –One who moves away from others (e.g., who desires independence, self-sufficiency, and freedom from obligations).

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-9 Theories of Personality – Cont’d Cognitive Theories of Personality –Personality as differences in cognitive processes (how consumers process and react to information)

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Need for Cognition (NC) A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking High NC consumers are likely to: –Relate better to written messages –Want product-related information –Spend more time processing print ads –Enjoy using the internet to get information

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Visualizers Vs Verbalizers A person’s preference for information presented visually or verbally Visualizers require strong visual elements in ads Verbalizers prefer written information, print ads, question-answer format

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Theories of Personality – Cont’d Trait theory –Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits –Single-trait or multiple-trait theories

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-13

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Trait Theories – Cont’d Consumer materialism –The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic” Fixed consumption behaviour –Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products Compulsive consumption behaviour –“Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Consumer Innovativeness The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services or new practices. Consumer innovators are likely to: –Score lower on dogmatism –Score higher on need for uniqueness –Have higher optimum stimulation levels –Have higher need for sensation seeking and variety seeking behaviours

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Consumer Materialism Possessions seen as for one’s identity Materialistic People –Value acquiring and showing-off possessions –Are particularly self-centered and selfish –Seek lifestyles full of possessions –Have many possessions that do not lead to greater happiness

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Consumer Ethnocentrism Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Research Insight: From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption Consumer materialism –The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic” Fixed consumption behaviour –Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products Compulsive consumption behaviour –“Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Fixated Consumption Behaviour Consumers have –a deep interest in a particular object or product category –a willingness to go to considerable lengths to secure items in the category of interest – the dedication of a considerable amount of discretionary time and money to searching out the product Examples: collectors, hobbyists

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Sample Items to Measure Compulsive Buying 1. When I have money, I cannot help but spend part or the whole of it. 2. I am often impulsive in my buying behaviour. 3. As soon as I enter a shopping center, I have an irresistible urge to go into a shop to buy something. 4. I am one of those people who often responds to direct mail offers. 5. I have often bought a product that I did not need, while knowing I had very little money left.

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Brand Personality Personality-like traits associated with brands Volvo - safety Perdue - freshness Nike - the athlete BMW - performance Levi’s dependable and rugged

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-22

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc (continued)

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Figure 4-11 (continued)

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Personality and Marketing Strategy Identify relevant personality traits Target consumers with the relevant personality traits Develop promotional messages that appeal to consumers with specific personality traits Develop a personality for the brand

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Self and Self-Image Self-image: A person’s perceptions of his/her self People have multiple selves –Different selves in different situations

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Actual Self- Image Ideal Self-Image Ideal Social Self-Image Social Self-Image Expected Self-Image Different Self-Images

28 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Different Self-Images Actual Self-Image –How you see your self Ideal Self-Image –How you would like to see yourself Social Self-Image –How you think others see you Ideal Social Self-Image –How you would like others to see you »continued

29 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Different Self-Images- Cont’d Expected Self-Image –How you expect to be in the future “Ought-to” Self –The qualities that you think you should possess

30 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Possessions Act as Self-Extensions By allowing the person to do things that otherwise would be very difficult By making a person feel better By conferring status or rank By bestowing feelings of immortality By endowing with magical powers

31 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4-31

32 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Altering Self Images If actual and ideal self-images are different, consumers may use products to alter their selves Personality vanity: self interest or admiration for one’s own appearance/achievements

33 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Internet Insight: Virtual Self Online individuals have an opportunity to try on different personalities Virtual personalities may result in different purchase behaviour

34 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Self Concept and Marketing Strategy Use self-concept for segmentation and positioning Market to consumers’ actual or ideal self-images –Depends on the nature of the product Promote products as ways of altering or extending self-image

35 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Life Style and Psychographics Psychographic Segmentation –Segmenting consumers on the basis of their activities, interests and opinions Psychographic-demographic profiles Geodemographic segmentation

36 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Life Styles and Marketing Strategy Use life styles for segmentation and positioning Develop media campaigns based on consumer life styles


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