Chapter Three: Determining Program Components by David Agnew Arkansas State University.
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Chapter Three: Determining Program Components by David Agnew Arkansas State University
Objectives 1. List and describe the steps in determining program content. 2. Identify the steps in sequence for conducting a needs and interest assessment (NIA). 3. Compare and contrast advantages and disadvantages and possible limitations of the various assessment techniques. 4. What are the major considerations in prioritizing needs and interests.
Objectives, Continued 5. List the benefits of a carefully designed and implemented needs and interest assessment. 6. Explain the difference in a program objective and a learning objective. 7. Explain the linkage between program objectives and evaluation. 8. Explain the three major domains of learning in which objectives are categorized.
Steps in Determining Program Content Review Institutional Purpose Conduct a Needs and Interest Assessment Prioritize Needs and Interests Develop Program Goals and Objectives Design Educational Offering Implement Program Evaluate Program
Step 1: Review Institutional Purpose Selected content must agree with the mission of the institution Advisory boards or governing boards help give definition to the boundaries of the mission. The content usually reflects the philosophical positions of the agency/unit.
Step 2: Conduct a NIA Steps in Conducting NIA –Clearly define the purpose of the NIA –Identify the target population –Determine available resources –Choose NIA methods. –Decide how NIA data will be recorded and analyzed. –Conduct the NIA –Analyze the data –Report the results
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Various Assessment Techniques Refer to the table in the text page 48.
Other Issues Related to Using Various Assessment Techniques The key issue here is that there can be limitations or problems with some of these techniques. You should be aware of those limitations as you evaluate and then select a technique to use with your program. A secondary issue is that these various techniques are more suited for some populations than others.
Limitations of Various Assessment Techniques Questionnaires --Pretest for reliability, validity, clarity Interview -- Can be more subjectively interpreted. Use a set question format to facilitate analysis Observation -- Observers must be trained and checklist developed Standardized Tests -- Don't overtest, especially early in a program. Be sure to use tests appropriate for your population and purpose Group process -- Facilitators must be trained. Findings are subjective Review of Records -- Precautions must be taken to protect privacy
Benefits of a Carefully Designed and Implemented NIA Aids in Marketing Upcoming Events Enhances Public Perception of Program Aids in Decision Making, Regarding Timing, student needs, and other accessibility issues. Discovery of Potential Resources Develops Baseline for Reference in future evaluations. Provides Rationale for Target Marking in the Future.
Step 3: Prioritizing Needs and Interests Major Considerations –Institutional Goals –Available Resources –Time and Space –Personnel –Money –State and Federal Regulations –Etc……
Step 4: Develop Program Goals and Objectives Difference in a Program Objective and a Learning Objective –Learning or instructional objective Focus is on what the student will learn and be able to do. More skill or performance oriented. –Program Objectives Broader and more general Not focused on the student will learn but what the program will accomplish Measure of success for the program
Domains of Learning in Which instructional Objectives are Categorized Cognitive – The facts, Head knowledge Psychomotor -- Skill or Performance related Affective -- attitude or feeling based
Steps 5: Design Educational Offerings Develop the means by which the program and instructional objectives are achieved. Select methods and techniques Sequence activities and objectives. Select delivery format, seminar, courses etc.. Set time location, select speakers, instructors, etc. This is the step which deals with strategy for how you will meet the need. Some insights will be gained and will guide your actions as a result of the NIA.
Step 6: Implement Program This is addressed in another chapter in more detail.
Step 7: Evaluate the Program There is a whole chapter devoted to this topic later, so we will not address this in detail now. What is the Linkage Between the Program Objective(s) and the Evaluation? –The Criteria for the Evaluation are the Program Objectives. –Everything links back to the program objectives. The activities planned The methods chosen The learning objectives
Summary Questions What are the seven steps in determining program content? What are the steps in conducting a NIA? What are some the advantages and disadvantages of selected assessment techniques? How does one prioritize needs after they are identified? What are the benefits of having conducted a NIA?
Summary Questions, Continued…. How is a program objective different than an instructional objective? How are the program objectives and the evaluation linked? What is included in the educational program planning or design stage? What are some of the limitations or precautions of the various assessment techniques?
Missing Point From the Text Advisory Committee or councils This topic was mentioned briefly, but I really think any time you are planning an educational program you need to have an advisory committee to help with the various stages of the educational program, not just planning. It is the administrator’s responsibilities to form and maintain the advisory committee. The state department has guidelines on how to form and manage an advisory committee.