Presentation on theme: "Foundations To Instructional Design & Media Selection Produced by Dr. James J. Kirk Professor of HRD Western Carolina University."— Presentation transcript:
Foundations To Instructional Design & Media Selection Produced by Dr. James J. Kirk Professor of HRD Western Carolina University
Some Things You Will Learn The definition of instructional design Current practices, trends, and issues in instructional design Key concepts and terminology
Instructional Design Foundations
What Is Instructional Design?
Instructional Design Is... The activity of planning and designing for instruction. also A discipline associated with the activity of planning and designing for instruction.
Instructional Design Includes Establishing A Need For Training Analyzing & Defining The Audience Specifying Media Based On Sound Instructional Development Decisions
Past ID Emphasis Was On Skills Training
Current ID Emphasis Is On Cognitive
Other Trends In Instructional Design Include... Viewing Instruction/Learning As A Subsystem Of An Organization Viewing Instruction As A Helping Role Using, Creating, Distributing, Delivering, And Evaluating Learning Activities
Instruction/Learning As A Subsystem Of An Organization ProductionManagement TechnologyFinancial CommunicationsLearning
Instruction As A Helping Role
Technology In The Design & Delivery Of Learning Activities
Other Trends In Instructional Design Include... Using Just-In-Time Instructional Design And Just-In-Time Instruction Using Self-Directed Learning Systems Using Performance Learning Systems
Using Just-In-Time Instructional Design And Just-In-Time Instruction
Cognitive Principles For Designing Instruction Responding To Performance Need Providing Relevant And Clear Instruction Providing Appropriate Amount of Help Staying Out Of The Learners Way Motivating Learners
Cognitive Principles For Designing Instruction Fostering A Supportive Learning Climate Making Training Problem-Centered Providing Opportunity For Practice Helping Learners Assume Control Of Their Learning Providing Learners Feedback
Some Cognitive Models For Instructional Design Are Cognitive Apprenticeships Case-Studies Functional Context Microworlds Simulations
Cognitive Apprenticeships Emulating opportunities for extended practice that apprentices have while working under a master craftsperson.
Case-Studies The presentation of real or fictional situations
Functional Context Instruction that begins
Microworlds A Computer-based simulation with opportunities for manipulation of content and practice of skills.
Simulations A model of any process or activity that represents the controls, methods, and consequences of human operator actions.
Two Types of Media Instructional
Instructional Media Media that has a direct link between the course developer and students.
Instructional Media Checklists & Flowcharts Actual Objects Workbooks Sound Slide Sets Immediatens Introduction To HRD
Instructional Aids Media that is produced for and used by the instructor in teaching.
Instructional Aids Mock-ups Handouts Teleconferencing Slides & Transparencies Computer Managed Instruction Role Plays
Media Classes Performance Aids Physical Objects Print Audio Projected Still Visuals Computer/Multimedia Simulators
Done Before Selecting Media Establish Need For Training Analyze/Decide To Select Media Based On Sound Instructional Development Principles
Requirement Of Selected Media Fit Students Learning Needs Copy Real Working Conditions Be Available & Justifiable Be Cost Effective Fit Learners Age, Culture, & Learning Habits Practical For Packaging, Implementing, & Updating
Used To Refine Media Selection Capability With Trainees Backgrounds Age Of Participants Local Production Capabilities Facilities Budgets
Steps In The Media Selection Process
Step One Will your message be instruction or information?
Is purpose to achieve measurable Yes No InstructionInformation Will media be used by the instructor? (or directly provide the instruction) No learning objectives! Select media to present the desired information.
Step Two How will you communicate the message?
Will media be used by the instructor? (or directly provide the instruction) No Yes Instructional AidsInstructional Medium
Step Three What are the characteristics of your lesson?
Will media be used by the instructor? (or directly provide the instruction) No Yes Instructional AidsInstructional Medium Determine learning domain
Step Four What media appears promising?
Determine learning domain Make initial selection from instructional aids. Make initial selection from instructional medium.
Step Five Is the promising media the best suited for this instruction?
Make initial selection from instructional aids. Make initial selection from instructional medium. Review advantages and disadvantages of selected instructional aids. Review advantages and disadvantages of selected instructional medium. Consider Other Choices.
Step Six Plan the developmental testing of medium & lesson materials?
Review advantages and disadvantages of selected instructional aids. Review advantages and disadvantages of selected instructional medium. Consider Other Choices. No Yes Media is ok. Develop materials.
ASSURE MODEL A nalyze Learners S tate Objectives S elect Media & Materials U tilize Materials R equire Learner Performance E valuate/Revise
Some Things You Have Learned The definition of instructional design Current practices, trends, and issues in instructional design Key concepts and terminology