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Just How Important is Movement to Learning? Session # 55 Ellen Harris ICLE Consultant International Center for Leadership in Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Just How Important is Movement to Learning? Session # 55 Ellen Harris ICLE Consultant International Center for Leadership in Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Just How Important is Movement to Learning? Session # 55 Ellen Harris ICLE Consultant International Center for Leadership in Education

2 A Nation at Risk 2 -Lagging Test Scores nationally -US ranks 14 th in the World in education in Majority of the students are Bored in School -High Drop out Rates -Obesity – its predicted that this generation will be the first to die before their parents

3 Outline for this Session The Brain Connection The Obesity Issue Movement in the Classroom Exergames Examples of how to use Movement successfully in all classrooms 3

4 Did you Know…. Movement and physical activities enhance the students learning in the classroom Brain research has shown the link between increased physical activity to improve cognition Exercise positively affects the levels of neurotransmitters such as glucose which stimulates cognition.

5 Did you Know… The Brain is only about 2% of the bodys weight but consumes 20% of the bodys energy After 15 – 17 minutes of sitting, your blood begins to drain from your brain and pool up in your thighs. The Brain is composed of nearly 80% water and must be hydrated to fully function.. Have students DRINK water to feed their brain, dehydration can affect their concentration negatively.

6 Did You Know…. That when you are Stressed… There is an increase in your brain of a chemical called Cortisol When Cortisol is high, the brain is less capable of planning, judging and problem solving. All skills necessary with the higher order of thinking.

7 7 True enjoyment comes from activity of the mind and exercise of the body; the two are united. Alexander von Humboldt

8 8 Emotion is the gatekeeper to learning and performance in the classroom. 8

9 Increasing Oxygen Levels through simple exercise shows a marked improvement in: Attention levels, Short term memory Processing speed, planning Sequencing and self-monitoring Reduced stress levels

10 The Obesity Issue

11 Obesity Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years. 7% of Children 6 – 11 years in the US in 1980 who were obese increased to 20% in % of obese children 12 – 19years in 1980 increased to 18% in In 2008 more than 1/3 of children and adolescents were overweight or obese.

12 Nutrition Low protein diets have resulted in lower achievement scores Iron deficiency anemia leads to shortened attention span, irritability, fatigue, and difficulty with concentration. Children tend to do poorly on vocabulary, reading and other tests. 12

13 Nutrition Children who suffer from poor nutrition during the brains most formative years score much lower on tests of vocabulary, reading comprehension arithmetic and general knowledge year olds from food insufficient families had significantly lower arithmetic scores

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17 1999 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1999, 2009 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 54 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% 30%

18 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

19 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1986 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

20 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1987 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

21 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1988 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

22 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1989 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

23 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

24 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1991 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

25 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1992 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

26 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1993 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

27 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1994 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

28 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1995 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

29 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1996 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

30 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1997 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%

31 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1998 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%

32 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1999 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%

33 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%

34 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2001 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%

35 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2002 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%

36 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2003 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%

37 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2004 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%

38 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2005 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% 30%

39 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2006 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% 30%

40 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2007 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% 30%

41 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2008 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% 30%

42 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2009 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% 30%

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44 What does Physical Inactivity mean for schools? For many states, funding is based on the number of students that show up each day. In one study, severely overweight children tended to miss more school than their overweight peers; therefore, possibly decreasing academic achievement. Schools can bear significant costs in providing extra resources, staff time, and instruction to students with poor academic performance and/or behavior problems. Schools must also spend money administering prescription drugs that are necessary to treat students with physical and emotional problems, due to poor nutrition, poor activity, and weight problems. (The Bottom Line: Improving Nutrition and Health, School Business Affairs, January 2005;

45 Increase Movement Improves their emotional health Self – esteem Alertness Increased concentration Improved mathematics Reading Writing test scores Reducing disruptive behavior Rates of learning Problem solving school absenteeism

46 46 BRAIN GYM ~ Calf pump Brain Gym, Teacher's Edition Revised by Paul E. Dennison and Gail E. Dennison, © Used by permission of the authors. The Calf Pump is a movement re-education process to restore the natural length of the tendons in the feet and lower legs. At times of perceived danger, these tendons shorten to prepare for the act of running. By pressing down the heel and lengthening the tendon in the calf, one discharges this fear reflex, and the muscles can return to a normal tonus.

47 Struggling Students Fewer brain synapses occurring in the brain – movement helps to increase the synapses allowing the brain hemispheres to communicate with each other Visual tracking – use cross laterals to reinforce the left and right side of their brain. This has shown to increase the skills the student may be lacking in reading, writing, thinking clearly and problem solving.

48 48 Rigor -if content is too simplified/broken down, the brain cannot define the patterns Relevance -knowing how and when to use the skill Relationship -making connections with other learning and with people Students Need…

49 Did you Know…. That doing Cross Crawl Activities The four visual fields needed for eye tracking in reading are strengthened through navigation of space and crossing the brain and body midlines. These exercises help spelling, listening, reading and comprehension. 49

50 Cross Crawls Useful for spelling, writing, listening, reading, math and comprehension.

51 Music

52 Music & Dance In Seattle – 3 rd Grade students used dance activities and boosted their reading scores by 13% in 6 months. Increased math and verbal scores by the use of rhythm and repetitive beats and movement Using movement leaves the students better focused and better behaved. Some schools have increased physical activity and reduced academic time, and the test scores still go up. The students are engaged and healthy and the teachers are having fun !

53 Music There is a link between academic achievement and steady beat music in math and reading. Music stimulates right brain learning and makes the learning process enjoyable Students make association to the music and rhythm

54 Music Use as an aid not a distraction If you want students to concentrate, select music that has regular periods with repeated phrases and patterns. Do not choose music with disharmonic patterns as this will distract their minds as they try to sort out the the disharmony.

55 Music A repetitive pattern of music helps in the repetitive nature of learning in math or grammar Use music when asking the students to use their imagination when writing descriptive exercises Walking and listening to music prior to testing has been shown to increase verbal fluency scores.

56 Examples When doing math, have your students do jumping jacks to give the answer. 3 x 5= 15 Jumping Jacks When reviewing Spelling words, have your students jog in place while spelling the words. Play hangman on the board when reviewing the States and capitals. Have them do squats until they get the correct answer. When waiting in line for the bathroom or for drinks, have your students stand quietly, but have them reach for the ceiling and then back down to their toes. These are just examples….the possibilities are endless when incorporating Movement into your classroom

57 Walk and Talk Pose a question and then have students walk around the classroom discussing the question. Exercise and movement relaxes the mind and opens their thinking abilities. 57

58 During Transition Times Add Movement.. Encourages laughter and fun Improves motivation and discipline Increases interest in class Build relationships

59 In Sports When playing sports the athlete is required to use their brains for counting, planning, figuring, and problem solving.. Highly engaged in cognitive functions.

60 Relaxing Techniques Hook ups – easy in the chair stretching and relaxing technique Crane stand- helps with balance and strengthens the core and brings focus Yoga – begin class with a few yoga moves – opens the mind up for the day Rocker – sit on a chair with feet up and rock one way and then the other. This releases the tension in the lower back and sacrum. When the sacrum is free to move, the brain at the the other end of the central nervous system is activated as well. 60

61 Brain and Learning After learning a new skill the brain can only handle so much information… it needs to go internal. Teachers should consider a short divergent activity like a ball toss or a walk that builds communication skills so the brain can process.

62 Math Make it come alive with kinesthetic teaching strategies that increase student performance. Angles come alive in the classroom Jumping Addition – = 15 ( addition and multiplication )

63 = Have the class do continual squats and when they solve the problem have them…. Hop up and down if the answer is an even number Turn circles if the answer is an odd number 63

64 = Have the class do continual squats and when they solve the problem have them…. Hop up and down if the answer is an even number Turn circles if the answer is an odd number 64

65 Math & Angles Line – no beginning and no end and goes in 2 directions Line Segment – beginning & end & a part in the middle Ray – has a beginning and goes in one direction Right Angle – equal to 90% Obtuse Angle – is greater than 90% less than 180% Acute Angle – is less than 90% 65

66 Tips Short term memory is best in the morning and least effective in the afternoon Long-term memory is generally best in the afternoon. Lessons with repetition or emotional energy may be more meaningful later in the school day Give students mental breaks several times a day

67 Rhythm Today less than 50% of American teenagers can demonstrate rhythmic competence ( Weikart, 1989) In many parts of the US only 10% of elem. students demonstrate steady beat competence. Girls are twice as likely as boys to show beat competency – and there are 6 boys for every girl in special education programs that focus on reading ( Weikart )

68 Suggestions Spelling words by forming the letters with their bodies Forming punctuation marks and expressing the feeling of sentences through movement Learning multiplication by moving in sets of threes and fours Discovering the difference between lunar and solar eclipse through planet dances Choreographing our way across the Oregon Trail

69 Benefits Gifted students discovered a new way to learn The slower learners quickly became actively engaged and successful The non-English speaking students can understand the curriculum through new nonverbal approaches. Attendance went way up Test scores rose substantially There was laughter Racial tension dissipated

70 Tools for the 21 st Century School that incorporates Movement.

71 Brain Room

72 Concept To develop the students cognitive skills as well as reinforce their academic concepts through movement. Room has nine stations to each with a different purpose Students pedal a bike to answer chemistry problems and do review for upcoming tests. Movement with a purpose – concept behind action- based learning Data= 11 freshmen used the room 3x a week for 6 weeks; scores improved and behavior improved. Stall High School, Charleston, SC

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74 ErgoBike Premium 8i From Germany's Daum Electronics, the Ergo Bike Premium 8i is a stationary bike that's outfitted with speakers, a microphone, monitor, camera, and an internet connection. Think of it as Facebook meets spin class. Users can compete against each other on virtual versions of famous race courses, or even team up for simulated races and talk smack over their headsets.

75 Exergames ! Dance Dance Revolution In the Groove EyeToy Wii Fit Wii Sport Fitbit Tracker Zamzee Maya Fit

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81 Schools and Physical Activity Children need plenty of opportunities throughout the school day to be active…..not just during PE. Schools should ensure that all children and youth participate in a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA during the school day! Research has shown that well-designed, well- implemented school programs can effectively promote physical activity. Where do most kids spend their school day????

82 Sitting at their desks, listening to their teacher, working on homework, taking notes, etc……….

83 Physical Activity in the Classroom By adding physical activity in the classroom, teachers are giving their students a chance to use up some energy and help them focus on learning. Physical Activity in the classroom can be as easy as having your students walk in place while reviewing for a test. However, schools and teachers may feel this takes away from learning time, but research shows that physical activity can improve learning and increase test scores………..

84 Physical Activity and Academic Achievement Nearly 200 studies on the effect of exercise on cognitive functioning suggest that physical activity supports learning. (Action for Healthy Kids, 2003; Schools that offer intense physical activity programs have shown positive effects on academic achievement, including increased concentration; improved mathematics, reading, and writing test scores; and reduced disruptive behavior, even when time for physical activity reduces the time for academics. (www.csba.org/is/ch/linkages.htm)www.csba.org/is/ch/linkages.htm A reduction of 240 minutes/week in class time for academics to permit increased PA leads to consistently higher mathematics scores. (Link between Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Academic Achievement, August 2002).

85 Physical Activity and Academic Achievement Aerobic conditioning seems to assist memory and physical activity has a definite impact on the frontal lobe, a primary brain area for mental concentration and planning. Children with daily physical education exhibit better attendance, a more positive attitude to school and superior academic performance. (NASPE/Council of PE for Children. Physical education is critical to a complete education, 2001) Evidence suggests that time spent in PE does not decrease learning in other subjects. Youth who spend less time in other subjects to allow for regular PE or physical activity have been shown to do equally well or better in academic classes. (Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Physical Activity and Fitness Research Digest )

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88 Getting your Students Cooled Down By adding the Movement into your classroom, your students energy will be high after an activity, so to get them cooled down and ready to learn, try these cool down techniques: – Take 3 deep breaths while raising their arms over their head – Have students lay their head on their desk while you count for 20 seconds. – Do some light stretching for a minute (side bends, bend down and touch your toes, arms circles, head rolls, etc)

89 From a Teachers Perspective I have noticed a tremendous amount of student involvement and engagement. …when incorporating movement and actions into word problems, students comprehension skills and attention to detail have greatly improved. When comparing the tests scores from last years class, I have noticed an increase in academics when movement was added this year.

90 Resources There are several websites that have actual lessons incorporating Movement into school lessons. – – – – – –

91 21 st Century Learning Strategies to use in the classroom.

92 92 Toad Hollow, NY 92 Healthy and Happy !!!


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