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Chapter 3. Most degenerative diseases are caused, at least in part, by our modern diet About 60 million adults, or 30% of the adult population, are now.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3. Most degenerative diseases are caused, at least in part, by our modern diet About 60 million adults, or 30% of the adult population, are now."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3

2 Most degenerative diseases are caused, at least in part, by our modern diet About 60 million adults, or 30% of the adult population, are now obese, which represents a doubling of the rate since 1980 Over the past 20 years Americans are consuming twice as much high-fat snack foods and three times as much soft drinks. Overweight and obesity are associated with heart disease, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, stroke, arthritis, breathing problems, and psychological disorders, such as depression.

3 1998 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1998, 2006 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 54 person) 2006 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14%15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% 30%

4 The cornerstone of holistic medicine Involves a diet of healthy foods matched to patients biochemical individuality Use of supplementation to maintain optimal physical and psychological health Basic foundation is a diet comprised of whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, beans Avoid junk food, processed foods, foods high in sugar and refined carbohydrates, foods high in unhealthy fats, excess salt, and reduce caffeine and alcohol intake

5 Use of nutrition as medicine is centuries old Discoveries of certain elements/foods that were missing or overabundant where documented as causing disease Many treatments included the use of vitamins and minerals It has taught us that nutrition is a chemical process that is essential for homeostasis in the body

6 1. No single diet is ideally suited to everyone Preference, Blood type, Heredity, Metabolism, Environment, Stress, Food allergies and sensitivities 2. Eat Health-Promoting Foods 1.Wide variety of organically grown whole grains, fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, and moderate amounts of low-fat animal foods 3. Avoid Refined Carbohydrates 1.Processing that reduces the nutrient value of the food and is linked to many chronic disease 2.Refined sugar, corn syrup, refined flour, and white rice are examples (all have reduced nutrient and fiber content)

7 4. Eliminate Unhealthy Fats 1.Fats are necessary (essential fats) 1.Omega-3 (Linolenic Acid) and Omega-6 (Linoleic Acid) 2.Flaxseed, fish oils, sunflower, safflower, soybean 2.Avoid trans-fatty acids found in margarine and commercially processed, hydrogenated vegetable oils 5. Minimize or Eliminate Caffeine 1.Addictive and potentially toxic compound in many individuals 2.Acts as a CNS stimulant and continual presence has substantial effects on chemical processes 6. Beware of Food Additives 1.Additives to enhance look, taste or preserve food 2.Colorings, sulfites, sodium benzoate, artificial sweetners

8 amyl acetate, amyl butyrate, amyl valerate, anethol, anisyl formate, benzyl acetate, benzyl isobutyrate, butyric acid, cinnamyl isobutyrate, cinnamyl valerate, cognac essential oil, diacetyl, dipropyl ketone, ethyl acetate, ethyl amyl ketone, ethyl butyrate, ethyl methylphenylglycidate, ethyl nitrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl valerate, heliotropin, hydroxyphrenyl-2-butanone (10 percent solution in alcohol), a-ionone, isobutyl anthranilate, isobutyl butyrate, lemon essential oil, maltol, 4-methylacetophenone, methyl anthranilate, methyl benzoate, methyl cinnamate, methyl heptine carbonate, methyl naphthyl ketone, methyl salicylate, mint essential oil, neroli essential oil, nerolin, neryl isobutyrate, orris butter, phenethyl alcohol, rose, rum ether, y-undecalactone, vanillin, and solvent.

9 7. Determine Food Allergies and Sensitivities 1.immune system response to a food that the body mistakenly believes is harmful 2.Hard to detect but crucial to holistic nutritional medicine 3.Milk, egg, peanut, tree nut (walnut, cashew, etc), fish, shellfish, soy, and wheat are the most common food allergens Works both preventively and therapeutically to ensure that adequate nutrients are supplied to meet individual needs

10 Macronutrients – serve as bodys source of energy Carbohydrates (4 kcal per gram) Glucose Mouth and Small Intestine Protein (4 kcal per gram) Amino Acids Stomach Lipids (9 kcal per gram) Triglycerides Mouth, mostly Small Intestine


12 Essential for the growth and maintenance of tissue Cell structures, enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, carriers for substances in the bloodstream (osmotic pressure), antibodies Of the 20+ Amino Acids eight are essential isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, valine and phenylalanine In developed countries, adequate amounts of protein are usually obtained However, not all AA are consumed Contrary to popular belief, all may be obtained through plant sources Meat products tend to be overused for protein sources

13 Bodys primary source of energy Help regulate fat and protein metabolism Sugars Simple (monosaccharide), disaccharide Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose; Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose Avoid these carbs except when found in fresh fruit Starches Complex (polysaccharride) Create sustained energy and better blood sugar levels Best choices are found in root vegetables, potatoes, whole grains, and corn

14 Fiber Provides little caloric value but are important in maintaining proper GI function and elimination Absorb water, binds toxins, and may reduce fat and cholesterol absorption Cellulose found in skins and outer hulls of vegetables and fruits and grains Other good sources include carrageen, guar gum, pectin and agar and alginate

15 Adipose Tissue Retains heat, supports & protects organs, energy reserve Needed for cell membrane structure, transport roles within the blood stream, myelin sheath production Triglycerides Form of fat that provides energy 95% of lipid content of food and easily stored Saturated (mostly animal sources) Unsaturated (plant sources) Monousaturated found in avocados and olive, almond, canola oils Polyunsaturated found in safflower, corn, sesame and soybean oils EFA – linoleic and aracnidonic (omega-6) and linolenic (omega-3)

16 Phospholipids Vital part of cell membrane Help form myelin sheath around nerve cells Sterols Cholesterol, phytosterols, and steroid hormones Cholesterol is naturally produced in the body and is important for Vit D production, cell membrane function, and formation of some androgens 20 to 30% of the diet should be comprised of lipids and 15% of that should come from essential fats total caloric requirement worksheet

17 RDA – Recommended Daily Allowances Since 1940, the U.S. government provided suggested intake of certain nutrients RDI - Reference Daily Intakes In 1993, the FDA took over Nutrient intake based on a 2000 calories diet, no age, gender differences SONA – Suggested Optimal Nutrient Allowance Formulated by holistic physicians because some RDIs were not sufficient enough Still take into account individual differences

18 Essential for proper regulation of metabolic reactions and biochemical processes Most cannot be synthesized in the body Fat soluble – A, D, E, K, and Carotenoids Can be stored in the body and in excess can be toxic Water soluble – All B vitamins, C, and bioflavonoids Needs to be replenished daily because they are broken down easily and the body does not store them No storage capacity makes them less likely to be toxic

19 Vitamin A Retinal and Retinol found in animal liver, whole milk, and some fortified foods Carotenoids are precursors to vit A and are found in orange fruits and green, leafy and yellow veggies Important for healthy teeth and skin, bone growth and tissue repair Retinal is important specifically for low light vision and development of mucus membranes Carotenoids act mainly as antioxidants offsetting free radicals

20 Vitamin A Stores diminished by stress and illness and alcohol consumption which also interferes with absorption Deficiencies result in night blindness Retinol inflammation Impaired immune response Toxicity (hypervitaminosis) includes Sickness – blurred vision, nausea, headache Birth defects and brain swelling in infants and children Skin discoloration to a yellow orange

21 Vitamin D Comes in various forms, most importantly D 2 & D 3 Found in Dairy products all milk in the U.S. is fortified with vitamin D Fish, Oysters Fortified cereals Also manufactured in the skin from UV light Essential for absorption of Ca + and regulating Ca + and P in the bloodstream Which also has secondary affects on the nervous system and muscular system

22 Vitamin D Deficiencies include In children – Rickets; In adults – osteomalacia Tetany and osteoporosis Too Much vit D Causes increased absorption of Ca + which leads to hypercalcemia Leads to calcium deposits, kidney stones, and irregular muscle and nerve activity

23 Vitamin E (tocopherols) antioxidant that protects body tissue from damage caused by unstable substances called free radicals Vitamin E is also important in the formation of red blood cells and helps the body to use vits A and K At lower levels, vitamin E may help protect the heart. Found in Seed and vegetable oils (safflower oils) Wheat germ, whole grains, nuts Green leafy veggies

24 Vitamin E (tocopherols) Excreted more easily than other fat soluble vits, however deficiencies are less obvious Form of anemia from RBC wall damage November, 2004, the American Heart Association stated that high amounts of vitamin E can be harmful. Taking 400 IU per day, or higher, may increase the risk of death.

25 Vitamin K Vitamin K is found in cabbage, cauliflower, spinach and other green leafy vegetables, cereals, soybeans, and other vegetables. Over half of vit K is also made by the bacteria that line the gastrointestinal tract (large intestine) Important for the production of proteins involved in the clotting process

26 Vitamin K Deficiencies are rare because the body produces a portion of the required amount Abnormal bleeding or hemorrhaging may result May be compounded by overuse of antibiotics, use of blood thinners (coumarin), impaired intestinal absorption, or liver disease Not toxic if taken orally even in large doses

27 Carotenoids Over 500 substances that occur in fruits and vegetables 50 of these are precursors to Vitamin A Beta carotene and Lycopene are two of the most known Have tremendous antioxidant properties Also support immune system products Deficiencies include free radical damage, precancerous conditions, CV damage, and lowered immune function

28 Water soluble – All B vitamins, C, and bioflavonoids Needs to be replenished daily because they are broken down easily and the body does not store them No storage capacity makes them less likely to be toxic Refer to handout Minerals are required for many vital processes Macrominerals comprise at least.01 % of bodyweight Ca, Cl, Mg, P, K, and Na Microminerals (trace) comprise less than.01 % of bodyweight Cr, Co, Cu, I, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, S, Zn

29 Eat Healthy Supplementation cannot overcome a poor diet Follow nutritional guidelines discussed earlier Avoid overcooking food Know the product Read labels and understand the dosage Look for unnecessary fillers, binders, additives Safe additives include: alginic acid, cellulose, calcium stearate, dicalcium phosphate, gum acacia, and silica All ingredients should be listed Contact info provided for further information Additive basics

30 Know when and how to take it Generally required with or near a meal for the best chance of breakdown and absorption Usually taken with the first meal of the day but high dosages should be spread throughout the day Some supplements, such as AAs, should be taken with juice an hour after a meal B vitamins are best taken as or with a complex for best assimilation Beware of Megadosing Some vitamins have toxicity levels Your holistic practitioner should guide you with any high dosages

31 Pay attention to your body after Be conscious of your body after taking your supplement Usually symptoms are associated to high dosages Dont mix supplementation unless advised Some create undesired reactions and are contraindicated Consult a nutritionally oriented holistic physician Be Consistent Nutritional benefits accrue over time There is no magic pill

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