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Carbon Compounds in Living Things

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon Compounds in Living Things"— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon Compounds in Living Things

2 All living things are composed on molecules of Carbon.

3 Carbon compounds are called ORGANIC compounds
*Carbon is unique because it can form so many types of compounds *Straight chains, branched chains and rings

4 *Carbon can also bond with other carbon atoms in single, double and triple bonds.

5 POLYMER-large molecule made up of repeating units
Many carbon molecules are built up from smaller simpler molecules known as MONOMERS. monomer polymer POLYMER-large molecule made up of repeating units

6 There are 4 types of Organic Molecules found in living things
1.CARBOHYDRATES - sugars and starches *word ending in -ose (cellulose) *uses - energy (in plants support)

7 A. MONOSACCHARIDE –simple sugar
*atoms in ratio of CH2O *examples: *hexose sugars- C6H12O6

8 B. DISACCHARIDE - two monosaccharides linked together.
fructose glucose sucrose

9 *Examples *sucrose (table sugar) =glucose+fructose *maltose = glucose + glucose *lactose (milk sugar) = galactose+glucose

10 C. POLYSACCHARIDES - starches
many sugars linked together Examples: cellulose, glycogen (Animal starch)

11 2. PROTEINS– made up of amino acids
Amino group Carboxyl(acid) group

12 *There are 20 different amino acids depending on what replaces the “R”
Glycine Alanine

13 Uses: growth, maintenance and repair, hormones and enzymes
DIPEPTIDE –two amino acids linked by peptide bond

14 POLYPEPTIDE – many amino acids linked by peptide bonds (protein)

15 *Some proteins are very large molecules containing hundreds of amino acids.
*Often these long proteins are bent and folded and joined by hydrogen bonding. *Protein shape can be influence by conditions such as temperature.

16 One very special group of proteins are ENZYMES.
Enzymes control how fast chemical reactions occur in organisms by reducing the amount of energy needed for the reaction to take place.

17 3. LIPIDS –fats, oils and waxes
Monomers are Fatty Acids Uses – storage of energy and making membranes, steroids and pigments

18 *Examples: *Triglyceride - made of glycerol and 3 fatty acids *Fats and Oils


20 PHOSPHOLIPID Hydrophilic Head -water loving
Hydrophobic Tail -water fearing

21 *Waxes-long fatty acid attached to a long alcohol chain.

22 *Cholesterol

23 4. NUCLEIC ACIDS – very large and complex molecules that store important information in the cell
Sub units – NUCLEOTIDES which are made of a 5-carbon sugar, nitrogen base and a phosphate group.

24 Diagram of Nucleotide

25 Examples: Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA Ribonucleic acid or RNA

26 THINK POSITIVE… Do you have everything you need? (notebook, sharpened pencil, workbook and your book!!!!) Are you in your assigned seat? (before the bell rings) Warm-up: 1. Name the 4 main organic compounds found in living cells. 2. What do all organic compounds have in common?

27 Make note cards or a foldable of the four types of compounds found in living cells.
Included uses, drawings, examples the repeated unit that make ups the compound. Label drawings so you know what they are.

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