3 Matter Must have mass Must occupy space (have volume) It is different from weight…..Why?Must occupy space (have volume)A measure of the quantity of matter (it is different from weight, which can be affected by gravity)This volume can change depending on environmental conditions like pressure
4 Matter Has Density Density of a Substance = Mass Volume See Reference Table S to compare density of elements
5 States of Matter Matter can exist in three basic states: Solid (s), Liquid (l), Gas (g)How are these states different from each other?
6 Can Matter be Destroyed? Example:When 400 grams of wood are burned only about 30 grams of ash remain.What would you think?What happened to the missing matter?
7 Law of Conservation of Matter Matter cannot be created or destroyedThis was a revolutionary idea up until the 1800’sEx: Burn a candle, thought part of the candle just disappeared and became nothing.But if you burn it in a closed container you can see the mass doesn’t change as it burns.Matter isn’t being lost but changing in form!
8 Atoms are all still there they just get rearranged
9 Balanced chemical equations show the number of atoms stay the same during reactions and thus obey this law.
16 Elements and Their Symbols Take Note Please!Elements have either one or two letters when they are written as a symbol.If two letters, the second letter is written lower case. (Ex: Write Cu for copper not CU)Why is this so important?
17 Sometimes the symbol is derived from a Latin name for the element. Usually it is pretty easy to match an element to its symbol (Ex: Neon = Ne)Sometimes the symbol is derived from a Latin name for the element.Ex: Au = gold (comes from Latin word aurum)
18 Tricky Elements Na = sodium K = potassium Fe = iron Cu = copper Sb = antimonySn = tinPb = leadHg = mercuryW = tungstunAu = goldAg = silver
19 Phases and Elements Solids: Gases: Most elements are solidsGases:H, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, N, O, F, ClLiquids:Hg, BrLet’s make a note of these on our Periodic Tables!
20 Diatomic Elements Most elements are monoatomic in pure form. Some elements have two atoms joined (diatomic)Who are they?Remember BrINClHOFLet’s make a note of these on our Periodic Tables!
21 Compounds Two or more different elements bonded together chemically Ex: C6H12O6, NO2, CO2, NaClNote: Most elements in nature do not exist in their pure state, but in compounds.Why?The numbers written below the symbols are called “subscripts” and let us know about the number of each type of atom in the compound
22 Law of Definite Proportions Compounds have specific formulas that show the proportion of elements to each other.Ex: Water is always H2OA “mixture” has proportions that can varyEx: salt waterEx: H2O always has 2hydrogen and oneoxygen atom in it
24 Getting New Properties Compounds have different chemical and physical properties than the elements that make them up.
25 - Sodium (Na)Toxic metal- Chlorine (Cl)Toxic gasSodium Chloride (NaCl)White edible crystalsalt for my french fries!!
26 Focus Question What makes atoms of one element different from another? What is inside its atoms…
27 Atomic Basics Atoms consist of three basic parts. Protons Neutrons Electrons
28 Fill in Chart: Particle Charge Mass Location Symbol Proton Neutron Electron
29 Atomic Number: Tells us the number of protons in nucleus It is unique for each element
30 Atomic Charge Atoms are neutral particles Number of electrons (-) = number of protons (+)How many electrons does an atom of carbon have?
31 Nuclear Charge Nuclear Charge: What is the Nuclear Charge? the charge on the nucleus of the atom.(+) positive charge = to number of protonsWhat is the Nuclear Charge?What is the Atomic Number?What is this Element?
32 Ionic Charge Ions: atoms with a charge Protons don’t equal electrons!! Atom has gained or lost electronsGain electrons: become (-) ionLose electrons: become (+) ionP = 9E = 10What is the element? What is it’s ionic charge?