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Protons, electrons, and neutrons
positively Protons – ____________ charged particles of an atom. _____________ – negatively charged particles of an atom. Neutrons – particles in an atom that are ___________, or have no charge. Electrons neutral
Electron Energy Levels
Electrons are arranged in within the electron cloud. Each energy level can hold a certain maximum number of electrons. First level – ____ Second level – ____ Third level – ____ 2 8 8
Using the Periodic Table
Na What is the symbol for sodium? Find Sodium’s atomic number. What does this number represent? How many electrons does sodium have? How do you find the number of neutrons? How many neutrons does Sodium have? 11 This number represent the number of protons. 11 Atomic mass – Atomic Number 12 23-11 = 12
The atoms have the outermost energy level filled.
Valence most stable The atoms have the outermost energy level filled. Atoms in which the outermost energy level is filled do not easily gain or lose electrons, therefore they do not easily form compounds with other elements. ____________ electrons represent the number of electrons in the outer energy level.
Periodic Table The groups, moving from left to right, are metals, metalloids, and non-metals. , , and Most of the elements in the periodic table are . metals metalloids non-metals. metals
Chemical Bonds When two or more elements join together, they form a ________. Compounds are held together by forces called chemical bonds. Atoms can form chemical bonds by sharing electrons or by transferring electrons from one atom to another. bond
(ex) NaCl = Sodium Chloride
Ionic bond – a compound that is formed through the _____________ of electrons. (ex) NaCl = Sodium Chloride When an atom loses an electron to move to another atom, it ends up with more protons than electrons. This results in an overall __________ charge. transfer positive
When an atom gains an electron from another atom, it ends up with more electrons with protons. This results in an overall ___________ charge. Ions – electrically charged atoms. (Ex) Na+ or Cl- Covalent bond – a bond based on the attraction between atoms that share electrons (Ex) Water – H2O negative
Drawing an Atom Fluorine Atom (F)
How many electrons does a Fluorine atom have? _______ 9 P 10 N 9
Drawing an Ion Fluorine Ion (F-)
How many electrons does a Fluorine ion have? _______ 9 P 10 N 10
Covalent Bonding (Water Molecule)
H2O 1 P Hydrogen 8 P 8 N Hydrogen 1 P Oxygen
Chemical Properties + = H2O This is a type of a change. chemical
4Al2(SO4)2 Chemical Formulas
How many atoms of the following elements are present? Al S O 8 8 32
Compounds, Mixtures & Solutions
A is a material that contains two or more substances that cannot be chemically combined. A is a mixture in which one substance is dissolved into another. A is a combination of two or more elements that form a chemical bond. solution compound
Compounds, Mixtures & Solutions
Classify the following substances as a compound, mixture, or solution. H2O NaCl air salt salt water salad water CO2 Compound Mixture Solutions
States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
Name the four states of matter. Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
States of Matter Identify the state of the following substances: Solid
Wood block Carbon dioxide lightning gasoline Neon stars water desk Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
Density Mass Density = ---------- Volume Mass
Density – the measure of the _______ of an object divided by its __________. Volume Mass Density = Volume
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